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metadata language: English

ANES 1994 Time Series Study

Version
v4
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • Rosenstone, Steven J. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Center for Political Studies)
  • Kinder, Donald R. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Center for Political Studies)
  • Miller, Warren E. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Center for Political Studies)
  • University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. American National Election Studies
Other Title
  • Version 4 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • American National Election Study (ANES) Series
Publication Date
1995-06-05
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
Language
English
Free Keywords
abortion; candidates; Clinton Administration (1993-2001); congressional elections; crime; domestic policy; economic conditions; government performance; government spending; media coverage; national elections; political affiliation; political attitudes; political campaigns; political efficacy; political elites; political participation; political partisanship; presidential elections; presidential performance; public approval; public opinion; racial attitudes; school prayer; trust in government; voter history; voting behavior; welfare services
Description
  • Abstract

    This study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1952. The election studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. The 1994 National Election Study is a post-election interview in which approximately 42 percent of the cases are comprised of empaneled respondents first interviewed in AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY, 1992: PRE- AND POST-ELECTION SURVEY [ENHANCED WITH 1990 AND 1991 DATA] (ICPSR 6067) and later in AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY: 1992-1993 PANEL STUDY ON SECURING ELECTORAL SUCCESS/1993 PILOT STUDY (ICPSR 6264). The other 58 percent of the cases are a freshly drawn cross-section sample. The panel component of the study is designed to exploit the special features of the 1992-1994 elections: a minority president struggling to forge a majority coalition in the face of a strong third-party challenge, and the replacement in 1992 of fully one-quarter of the House of Representatives. Coming at the end of this period, the 1994 National Election Study provides insights into how electoral coalitions form and decay, and how members of the House who were newly-elected in 1992 secured -- or did not secure -- their districts. The design themes became especially salient in the aftermath of the November 8 election, when control of the Congress shifted to the Republican Party for the first time since 1952. Survey questions included the now-standard National Election Studies battery of congressional evaluations supplemented by questions on term limits, the respondent's representative's vote on President Bill Clinton's crime bill, and whether the respondent felt that his or her representative cared more about prestige and influence for himself/herself than about solving the problems of the congressional district. The content for the 1994 Election Study reflects its dual purpose, both as the traditional presidential election year time-series data collection and as the third wave of a panel study. In addition to the standard demographic items, respondents were asked their positions on the following substantive themes: interest in the campaign, media exposure, presidential performance evaluation, measures of partisanship (party likes/dislikes and party identification), which party would better handle certain public problems, summary evaluations (feeling thermometers) on major political figures and social groups, and recent voting behavior. Respondents were also asked their views on issues such as defense spending, assistance to Blacks, the trade-off between spending and services, health insurance, the role of women, recent proposals to reform welfare, preferences on federal budget allocations, and evaluations of retrospective and prospective national and personal economic trends. They were also queried on the extent of their participation in the campaign and their values regarding egalitarianism, attitudes toward race, school prayer, and abortion.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • 1990 / 1994
    Time period: 1990--1994
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
All United States citizens of voting age on or before November 3, 1992 (for those interviewed in 1992 and 1993), or on or before November 8, 1994 (for those interviewed in 1994), residing in housing units other than on military reservations in the 48 coterminous states.
Sampling
National multistage area probability sample.
Collection Mode
  • face-to-face interview, telephone interview

    A total of 1,795 citizens were interviewed in the nine weeks after the November 8, 1994, election. Forty percent of these interviews were completed during the first week, and 68 percent were completed by the end of the third week. Of the total 1,795 respondents, 759 were initially interviewed in the 1992 Pre-Post Election Study, and 635 of these 759 panel respondents had also been interviewed (by telephone) in the 1993 Pilot Study. Variables from 1992 and 1993 have been padded with missing data values for all 1994 cross-section respondents.

Note
2015-11-10 The study metadata was updated.1999-09-15 The data for this study are now available in SAS transport and SPSS export formats, in addition to the ASCII data file. Variables in the dataset have been renumbered to the following format: 2-digit (or 2-character) year prefix + 4 digits + [optional] 1-character suffix. Dataset ID and version variables have also been added. Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation (SES-8808361 and SBR-9317631).
Availability
Download
This study is freely available to ICPSR member institutions via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 6507 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR06507.v3
Publications
  • Muste, Christopher P.. The dynamics of immigration opinion in the United States, 1992-2012. Public Opinion Quarterly.77, (1), 398-416.2013.
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  • D'Ambrosio, Lisa Anne. An exploration of people's emotional reactions to presidential candidates during the campaign. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 2008.
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  • Dow, Jay. Religious Faith and Voter Turnout in the 1992-2004 Presidential Election Cycles. the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Southern Political Science Association.New Orleans, LA. 2008.
  • Fischer, Elaine. A Gendered Calculus of Voter Turnout. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Fischer, Elaine. A Gendered Calculus of Voting. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Gilbert, Craig. Keys to the Oval Office. McClatchy - Tribune Business News.2008.
  • Griffin, John D., Newman, Brian. Assessing the Rewards of Voting Across Groups. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Jankowski, Richard. The Irrationality of Becoming Politically Informed: Why and How Individuals Acquire Political Information. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Kam, Cindy. Reaching out or pulling back: Macroeconomic conditions and public support for social welfare spending . Political Behavior.30, (2), 223-258.2008.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11109-007-9048-3 (DOI)
  • Killian, Mitchell, Wilcox, Clyde. Do Abortion Attidudes Lead to Party Switching?. Poltical Research Quarterly.61, (4), 561-573.2008.
    • ID: 10.1177/1065912907312981 (DOI)
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  • Parker-Stephen, Evan. Updating Dynamics in Micro-Macro Perspective. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Prysby, Charles, Holian, David. Who Votes On the Basis of the Candidate's Personality? Vote Choice in U.S. Presidential Elections, 1992-2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Shani, Danielle. Born in the USA: Doubts about the Role of Formative Events in Developing Political Interest. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Stokes-Brown, Atiya Kai, Doman, Kathleen. Black and Female Like Me: The Impact of Candidate Race and Gender in Congressional Elections. 2008 annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association.New Orleans, LA. 2008.
  • Theriault, Sean, Hickey, Patrick, Myers, Adam. First-in-the-Nation in Proficiency or by Providence? Iowa, New Hampshire and the Presidential Primary Process. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Bittner, Amanda. Survey Structure, Measurement Effects, and the Evaluation of Party Leaders. Midwest Political Science Association Annual Meeting.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • D'Ambrosio, Lisa Anne. An exploration of people's emotional reactions to presidential candidates during the campaign. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 2007.
  • DeWitt, Jeff. Considering Congressional Candidates and Incumbency Advantage in U.S. House Elections, 1980-2000. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Enns, Peter. The Micro Foundations of Macro Politics. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Kershaw, David. Conditional Nature of Vote Recruitment. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Killian, Mitchell. Moments of doubt and reassessment: An examination of why individuals switch political parties. Dissertation, George Washington University. 2007.
  • Lacy, Dean, Christenson, Dino. The Effects of Information on Economic Voting. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Lipsitz, Keena. The Consequences of Battleground and 'Spectator' State Residency for Political Participation. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • McAdams, John. The Rise of the New Class: 1956-2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Ulrich, Justin, Garand, James. The Economy, Subjective Economic Evaluations, and the Presidential Vote. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Carmines, Edward, Ensley, Michael, Wagner, Michael. Issue Preferences and Political Participation in American Politics, 1972-2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2006.
  • Goldman, Seth, Brewer Paul. Implicit Influence in Communication: The Case of Gay Marriage. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2006.
  • Lau, Richard. Changing Patterns of the Presidential Vote Choice, 1980-2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2006.
  • Valentino, Nicholas, Hutchings, Vincent, Gregorowicz, Krysha, Groenendyk, Eric W., Brader, Ted. Election Night's All Right for Fighting: The Role of Anger versus Anxiety in Political Participation. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2006.
  • Winter, Nicholas J. G.. Beyond Welfare: Framing and the Radicalization of White Opinion on Social Security. American Journal of Political Science.50, (2), 400-420.2006.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1540-5907.2006.00191.x (DOI)
  • Bartels, Larry. What's the Matter with 'What's the Matter with Kansas?'. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Elder, Laurel, Greene, Steven. The Politics of Parenthood, 1972-2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2005.
  • Fitzgerald, Mary. The Triggering Effects of Alternative Voting Methods on U.S. Political Campaigns and Elections. annual meeting of the American National Election Studies.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Griffin, Stephen. Trust in Government as a Constitutional Problem. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Harris-Lacewell, Melissa, Albertson, Bethany. Good Times? Understanding African American Misperceptions of Racial Economic Fortunes . Journal of Black Studies.35, (5), 650-683.2005.
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  • Kelly, Nathan, Kelly, Jana Morgan. Religion and Latino Partisanship in the United States. Political Research Quarterly.58, (1), 872005.
  • Kilburn, H. Whitt. Does the Candidate Really Matter?. American Politics Research.33, (3), 335-356.2005.
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  • Knuckey, Jonathan. A New Front in the Culture War?: Moral Traditionalism and Voting Behavior in U.S. House Elections. American Politics Research.33, (5), 645-671.2005.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X04270517 (DOI)
  • Lewis, Carol W., Gilman, Stuart C.. The Ethics Challenge in Public Service: A Problem-Solving Guide. SanFrancisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 2005.
  • MacKuen, Michael, Parker-Stephen, Evan. Affect, Accuray, and the Left Shift in American Politics. annual meeting of the American Political Science Assocation.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Ramakrishnan, S. Karthick. Democracy in Immigrant America. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. 2005.
  • Shaw, Daron R., McKenzie, Mark J., Underwood, Jeffrey. Strategic Voting in the California Recall Election. American Politics Research.33, (2), 216-245.2005.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X04272230 (DOI)
  • Stanley, Harold W., Niemi, Richard G.. Partisanship, Party Coalitions, and Group Support, 1952-2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Wong, Cara, Cho, Grace E.. Two-Headed Coins or Kandinskys: White Racial Identification. Political Psychology.26, (5), 6992005.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1467-9221.2005.00440.x (DOI)
  • Arnold, R. Douglas. Congress, the Press, and Political Accountability. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 2004.
  • Benoit, William L., Hansen, Glenn J.. Issue Ownership in Primary and General Presidential Debates. Argumentation and Advocacy.40, (3), 143-155.2004.
  • Berinsky, Adam J.. Silent Voices: Public Opinion and Political Participation in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 2004.
  • Claassen, Ryan L.. Political Opinion and Distinctiveness: The Case of Hispanic Ethnicity. Political Research Quarterly.57, (4), 609-620.2004.
  • Dolan, Kathleen A.. The Impact of Candidate Sex on Evaluations of Candidates for the U.S. House of Representatives. Social Science Quarterly.85, (1), 206-218.2004.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.0038-4941.2004.08501015.x (DOI)
  • Dolan, Kathleen A.. Voting for Women: How the Public Evaluates Women Candidates. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 2004.
  • Endersby, James W., Bough, Brian, Gooch, Donald, Hall, Steven, Klimek, Monika. The Polarizing American Voter Issues, Partisanship, and Vote Choice in Presidential Elections, 1984-2000. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Garand, James C., Wrzenski, Rhonda, Procopio, Steven. Explaining Support for Congressional Term Limits. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Goolsby, Delia. Realignment of White Southerners: The Generational Replacement Hypothesis Revisited. annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association.New Orleans, LA. 2004.
  • Goolsby, Delia. Regional Realignments? Sub-national Trends in Partisan Identification in the Northeast. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Hero, Rodney E., Tolbert, Caroline J.. Minority Voices and Citizen Attitudes about Government Responsiveness in the American States: Do Social and Institutional Context Matter?. British Journal of Political Science.34, (1), 109-121.2004.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0007123403000371 (DOI)
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    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X04264539 (DOI)
  • Howell, Susan E., Perry, Huey L.. Black Mayors/White Mayors: Explaining Their Approval . Public Opinion Quarterly.68, (1), 32-56.2004.
    • ID: 10.1093/poq/nfh003 (DOI)
  • Jankowski, Richard. Altruism and the Decision to Vote: Explaining High Voter Turnout. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Kelly, Nathan, Kelly, Jana. Religious Orthodoxy, Group Affect, and Latino Political Behavior. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Knuckey, Jonathan. Moral Traditionalism and Recent Partisan Change in the American Electorate. annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association .New Orleans, LA. 2004.
  • Knuckey, Jonathan. The Culture War and Voting Behavior in U.S. House Elections. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Koch, Jeffrey. The Changing Black and White Divide on Americans' Attitudes toward Gays. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Lawless, Jennifer. Politics of Prescence? Congresswomen and Symbolic Representation. Political Research Quarterly.57, 81-89.2004.
  • Lefkowitz, Joel K.. Mobilization Matters: The Changing Impact of Mobilization on Vote Choice in Congressional Elections, 1978-2002. Congress and the Presidency .31, (2), 119-131.2004.
    • ID: 10.1080/07343460409507701 (DOI)
  • McKee, Seth C.. The Impact of Congressional Redistricting in the 1990s on Minority Representation, Party Competition, and Legislative Responsiveness. annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association .New Orleans, LA. 2004.
  • Parker, Glenn R.. Self-Policing in Politics: The Political Economy of Reputational Controls on Politicians. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 2004.
  • Persily, Nathaniel, Lammie, Kelli. Symposium: The Law of Democracy: Campaign Finance After McCain-Feingold: Perceptions of Corruption and Campaign Finance: When Public Opinion Determines Constitutional Law. University of Pennsylvania Law Review.153, 1192004.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4150623 (URL)
  • Peterson, David A.M.. Voters' Response to Changes in American Politics, 1952-2000. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Roddy, Dennis. Picking Sides: Young Minds Molded for 21st-Century Activism Tend to Embrace the Far Left or Far Right, with Little Political Middle Ground in Sight. Pittsburgh-Post Gazette.2004.
  • Saunders, Kyle L., Abramowitz, Alan I.. Ideological Realignment and Active Partisans in the American Electorate. American Politics Research.32, (3), 285-309.2004.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X03259195 (DOI)
  • Abramowitz, Alan I., Alexander, Brad. The 2002 Midterm Election and the Future of American Politics. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2003.
  • Arceneaux, Kevin. The Conditional Impact of Blame Attribution on the Relationship Between Economic Adversity and Turnout. Political Research Quarterly.56, (1), 67-75.2003.
  • Atkeson, Lonna Rae. Not All Cues Are Created Equal: The Conditional Impact of Female Candidates on Political Engagement. Journal of Politics.65, (4), 10402003.
    • ID: 10.1111/1468-2508.t01-1-00124 (DOI)
  • Bennett, Stephen Earl. Is the Public's Ignorance of Politics Trivial?. Critical Review.15, (3-4), 307-372003.
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  • Box-Steffensmeier, Janet M., Kimball, David C., Meinke, Scott R., Tate, Katherine. The Effects of Political Representation on the Electoral Advantages of House Incumbents. Political Research Quarterly.56, (3), 259-270.2003.
  • Dolan, Kathleen A.. Electoral Context, Issues, and Voting for Women in the 1990s. Women and Congress: Running, Winning, and Ruling.New York, NY: Haworth Press. 2003.
  • Dolan, Kathleen A.. Voting for Women: How the Public Evaluates Women Candidates. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 2003.
  • Dow, Jay K.. Turnout and Voter Choice in House of Representatives Elections: 1990 - 2000. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association .Philadelphia, PA. 2003.
  • Finocchiaro, Charles J.. An Institutional View of Congressional Elections: The Impact of Congressional Image on Seat Change in the House. Political Research Quarterly.56, (1), 59-65.2003.
  • Gronke, Paul W., Koch, Jeffrey W., Wilson, James Matthew. Follow the leader? Presidential approval, presidential support, and representatives' electoral fortunes. Journal of Politics.65, (3), 785-808.2003.
  • Koch, Jeffrey W.. Political cynicism and third party support in American presidential elections. American Politics Research.31, (1), 48-65.2003.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X02238579 (DOI)
  • Lawrence, Christopher Neil. The Impact of Political Sophistication on the Decision-Making Processes of Voters. Dissertation, University of Mississippi. 2003.
    • ID: http://www.lordsutch.com/chris/papers/dissertation.pdf (URL)
  • Levy, Dena, Tien, Charles, Aved, Rachelle. Do Differences Matter? Women Members of Congress and the Hyde Amendment. Women and Congress: Running, Winning, and Ruling.New York, NY: Haworth Press. 2003.
  • Newman, Brian. Change and Stability in the Ingredients of Presidential Approval: Toward a General Model. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2003.
  • Newman, Brian Paul. Standards of judgment: The foundations of presidents' public support . Dissertation, Duke University. 2003.
  • Purdy, Jedediah. Suspicious Minds. Atlantic Monthly.2003.
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  • Stimson, James. Macro-Politics: The Dimensions and Dynamics of Public Opinion. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2003.
  • Abramowitz, Alan I., Allen, Susan H., Knotts, Gibbs, Saunders, Kyle L.. Racial Attitudes, Ideology, and the Rise of Republican Identification Among Southern Whites, 1982-2000. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2002.
  • Bennett, Stephen Earl. Another lesson about public opinion during the Clinton-Lewinsky scandal. Presidential Studies Quarterly.32, (2), 276-292.2002.
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  • Claggett, William, Shafer, Byron E.. The Pure Politics of Policy Choice. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2002.
  • DeWitt, Jeff R.. Reconsidering Context: The Impact of Political Sophistication on Presidential Candidate Evaluations. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2002.
  • Edlund, Lena, Pande, Rohini. Why Have Women Become Left-Wing? The Political Gender Gap and the Decline in Marriage. The Quarterly Journal of Economics.117, (3), 917-961.2002.
    • ID: 10.1162/003355302760193922 (DOI)
  • Gay, Claudine. Spirals of trust? The effect of descriptive representation on the relationship between citizens and their government. American Journal of Political Science.46, (4), 717-732.2002.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3088429 (URL)
  • Glaser, James M.. White Voters, Black Schools: Structuring Racial Choices With a Checklist Ballot. American Journal of Political Science.46, (1), 35-46.2002.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3088413 (URL)
  • Goren, Paul. Character Weakness, Partisan Bias, and Presidential Evaluation. American Journal of Political Science.46, (3), 627-641.2002.
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  • Hetherington, Marc J., Globetti, Suzanne. Political Trust and Racial Policy Preferences. American Journal of Political Science.46, (2), 253-275.2002.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3088375 (URL)
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  • Layman, Geoffrey C., Carsey, Thomas M.. Party polarization and party structuring of policy attitudes: A comparison of three NES panel studies. Political Behavior.24, (3), 199-236.2002.
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  • Manza, Jeff, Brooks, Clem. The Changing Political Fortunes of Mainline Protestants. The Quiet Hand of God: Faith-Based Activism and the Public Role of Mainline Protestantism.Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 2002.
  • Mebane, Walter R., Jr., Sekhon, Jasjeet S.. Coordination and policy moderation at midterm. American Political Science Review.96, (1), 141-157.2002.
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  • Nicholson, Stephen P., Segura, Gary M., Woods, Nathan D.. Presidential Approval and the Mixed Blessing of Divided Government. Journal of Politics.64, (3), 701-720.2002.
  • Persily, Nathaniel. In Defense of Foxes Guarding Henhouses: The Case for Judicial Acquiescence to Incumbent-Protecting Gerrymanders. Harvard Law Review.116, 6492002.
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  • Rohde, David W.. American Fears: Change and Continuity. Fears in Post-Communist Societies: A Comparative Perspective.New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. 2002.
  • Rudolph, Thomas J., Grant, J.Tobin. An Attributional Model of Economic Voting: Evidence from the 2000 Presidential Election. Political Research Quarterly.55, (4), 805-823.2002.
  • Slaughter, Matthew J.. Protectionist Tendencies in the North and Vulnerable Economies in the South. Globalization, Marginalization and Development.New York, NY: Routledge. 2002.
  • Snyder, James M., Jr., Ting, Michael M.. An Informational Rationale for Political Parties. American Journal of Political Science.46, (1), 90-110.2002.
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  • Uggen, Christopher, Manza, Jeff. Democratic contraction? Political consequences of felon disfranchisement in the United States. American Sociological Review.67, (6), 777-803.2002.
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  • Wright, Gerald C., Morehouse, Jeanette L.. Verifying the Common Widsom: Nonvoters Would Be More Democratic. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2002.
  • Arceneaux, Kevin. Attributing Responsibility for Economic Conditions in Congressional Elections. annual meeting of the Southwestern Political Science Association.Fort Worth, TX. 2001.
  • Atkeson, Lonna Rae, Carrillo, Nancy. More is Better: The Impact of Female Descriptive Representation on Citizen Attitudes toward Government Responsiveness. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.San Francisco, CA. 2001.
  • Bartels, Larry M., Zaller, John. Presidential Vote Models: A Recount. PS: Political Science and Politics.34, 9-20.2001.
  • Bond, Jon R., Fleisher, Richard. The polls: Partisanship and presidential performance evaluations. Presidential Studies Quarterly.31, (3), 529-540.2001.
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  • Brockington, David Patrick. The Determinants and Ramifications of Low Information Voting. Dissertation, University of Washington. 2001.
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Update Metadata: 2015-11-10 | Issue Number: 1 | Registration Date: 2015-11-10

Rosenstone, Steven J.; Kinder, Donald R.; Miller, Warren E.; University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. American National Election Studies (1995): ANES 1994 Time Series Study. Version 4. American National Election Study (ANES) Series. Version: v4. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06507.v4