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Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study 2000-2013

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Forster, Jean (University of Minnesota. School of Public Health)
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Cancer Institute
  • ClearWay Minnesota
Free Keywords
advertising; alcohol; alcohol consumption; education; educational environment; friendships; home environment; living conditions; marijuana; marketing; parent child relationship; parental influence; policy; smoking; smoking cessation; social identity; social life; stress; tobacco products; tobacco use; young adults; youths
  • Abstract

    The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study is a population-based, longitudinal study that enrolled 3636 youth from Minnesota and 605 youth from comparison states age 12 to 16 years in 2000-2001. Participants were surveyed by telephone semi-annually about their tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors. The goals of the study were to evaluate the effects of the Minnesota Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative and its shutdown on youth smoking patterns, and to better define the patterns of development of tobacco use in adolescents. A multilevel sample was constructed representing individuals, local jurisdictions and the entire state, and data were collected to characterize each of these levels. Major topics covered by the survey are cigarette use, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and dependence, cigarette access, quitting smoking, use of other tobacco products and marijuana, parent smoking habits, tobacco marketing, emotions and stress perceptions, and perceptions and opinions of smoke-free laws, tobacco companies, and tobacco age restrictions. Demographic information includes age, education, ethnicity, gender, marital status, and income level.
  • Abstract

    The primary aim of the MACC study was to evaluate local tobacco control programs in Minnesota, and the secondary aim was to better define the patterns of tobacco use in young adults and to evaluate the effects of tobacco control programs on these patterns.
  • Abstract

    The MACC Study employs a multilevel design, including a cohort sequential design of five ages at the individual level where individuals (adolescents) are surveyed every six months. These individuals are nested in GPUs (geo-political units) and there are longitudinal observations at the GPU level every six months as well. Finally, individuals and GPUs were randomly assigned a specific month within the six-month window for each observation; thus each month constitutes an observation in a time series design for the state of Minnesota.
  • Methods

    The data are not weighted, and no weight variables are present in the data set.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Created variable labels and/or value labels.; Standardized missing values.; Created online analysis version with question text..
  • Methods

    Presence of Common Scales: Common, Previously Validated Scales Present in MACC: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) - variables Q1051-Q1055 Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Scale (FTND) - variables Q0161-Q0165, and Q0127) CAGE - variables Q0483A1-Q0483A4 Susceptibility to smoking - variables Q0040, Q0140, Q0050, Q0090, Q0100, and Q0110 (learn more by reading 'An improved surveillance measure for adolescent smoking?' available on JSTOR)
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The MACC Cumulative Response Rates by Round are as follows: Baseline: 100% Round 2: 96.68% Round 3: 34.57% Round 4: 93.53% Round 5: 91.79% Round 6: 89.66% Round 8: 82.75% Round 9: 81.99% Round 10: 79.89% Round 11: 80.04% Round 12: 77.51% Round 13: 73.07% Round 14: 69.71% Round 15: 60.47% Round 17: 60.32% Round 21: 54.35% Round 23: 52.86% Round 25: 50.17% For additional information about the response rates of the MACC, please see the "Response Rates" bookmark under the Original P.I. Documentation section of the ICPSR codebook.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study 2000-2013
Temporal Coverage
  • 2000-10 / 2013-03
    Time period: 2000-10--2013-03
  • 2000-10 / 2013-03
    Collection date: 2000-10--2013-03
Geographic Coverage
  • Kansas
  • Michigan
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • North Dakota
  • South Dakota
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Young adults aged 12-16 in Minnesota, Kansas, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Michigan. Smallest Geographic Unit: Geo-Political Unit (GPU)
A combination of probability and quota sampling methods (to assure equal age distribution) was used to establish the cohort. The goal was to recruit 3600 participants from Minnesota. These participants included 12 of each age from 12 to 16 years old from each of the 60 Minnesota GPUs. Recruitment was conducted by telephone by Clearwater Research, Inc., using modified random digit dial (MOD1) sampling to identify households with at least one teenager in the target age range within the target GPU. Within households, respondents were selected at random from among age quota cells that were still open for that GPU. Parent permission was obtained by telephone followed by permission from the chosen teenager before interviewing. In addition a comparison cohort (n=600) consisting of approximately 180 12-16 year olds from metropolitan Kansas City KS and MO, 240 from the rest of Kansas, 60 each from North and South Dakota and 60 from the upper peninsula of Michigan were recruited into the study. These states were chosen because as of 2000 they had devoted few resources from the Master Settlement Agreement to tobacco control and because they roughly corresponded to the demographics of Minnesota. Adolescents were interviewed by phone every six months, on the six-month anniversary of their previous interview.
Collection Mode
  • computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI)

Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Cancer Institute (R01-CA086191). ClearWay Minnesota (RC-2007-0018).
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 36282 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR36282.v1
  • Choi, Kelvin, Fabian, Lindsey E.A., Brock, Betsy, Engman, Katie H., Jansen, Jim, Forster, Jean L.. Availability of snus and its sale to minors in a large Minnesota city. Tobacco Control.2015.
    • ID: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050719 (DOI)
  • Taylor, Naomi, Choi, Kelvin, Forster, Jean. Snus use and smoking behaviors: Preliminary findings from a prospective cohort study among US Midwest young adults. American Journal of Public Health.105, (4), 683-685.2015.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.302536 (DOI)
  • Choi, Kelvin, Forster, Jean. Tobacco direct mail marketing and smoking behaviors in a cohort of adolescents and young adults from the U.S. Upper Midwest: A prospective analysis. Nicotine and Tobacco Research.16, (6), 886-889.2014.
    • ID: 10.1093/ntr/ntu013 (DOI)
  • Choi, Kelvin, Forster, Jean L.. Beliefs and experimentation with electronic cigarettes: A prospective analysis among young adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.46, (2), 175-178.2014.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.amepre.2013.10.007 (DOI)
  • Choi, Kelvin, Forster, Jean L.. Frequency and characteristics associated with exposure to tobacco direct mail marketing and its prospective effect on smoking behaviors among young adults from the US Midwest. American Journal of Public Health.104, (11), 2179-2183.2014.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.302123 (DOI)
  • Erickson, Darin J., Lenk, Kathleen M., Forster, Jean L.. Latent classes of young adults based on use of multiple types of tobacco and nicotine products. Nicotine and Tobacco Research.16, (8), 1056-1062.2014.
    • ID: 10.1093/ntr/ntu024 (DOI)
  • Lenk, Kathleen M., Toomey, Traci L., Shi, Qun, Erickson, Darin J., Forster, Jean L.. Do sources of cigarettes among adolescents vary by age over time?. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse.23, (2), 137-143.2014.
    • ID: 10.1080/1067828X.2012.750972 (DOI)
  • Mathur, Charu, Stigler, Melissa H., Erickson, Darin J., Perry, Cheryl L., Forster, Jean L.. Transitions in smoking behavior during emerging adulthood: A longitudinal analysis of the effect of home smoking bans. American Journal of Public Health.104, (4), 715-720.2014.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301642 (DOI)
  • Choi, Kelvin, Fabian, Lindsey, Jansen, Jim, Lenk, Kathleen, Forster, Jean. Young adults' support for adult-ratings for movies depicting smoking and for restrictions on tobacco magazine advertising. World Medical and Health Policy.5, (4), 335-346.2013.
    • ID: 10.1002/wmh3.76 (DOI)
  • Choi, Kelvin, Forster, Jean. Awareness, perceptions and use of snus among young adults from the upper Midwest region of the USA. Tobacco Control.22, (6), 412-417.2013.
    • ID: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050383 (DOI)
  • Choi, Kelvin, Forster, Jean. Characteristics associated with awareness, perceptions, and use of electronic nicotine delivery systems among young US Midwestern adults. American Journal of Public Health.103, (3), 556-561.2013.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300947 (DOI)
  • Klein, Elizabeth G., Bernat, Debra H., Lenk, Kathleen M., Forster, Jean L.. Nondaily smoking patterns in young adulthood. Addictive Behaviors.38, (7), 2267-2272.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.03.005 (DOI)
  • Klein, Elizabeth G., Forster, Jean L., Erickson, Darin J.. Longitudinal predictors of stopping smoking in young adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health.53, (3), 363-367.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.04.012 (DOI)
  • Mathur, Charu, Erickson, Darin J., Stigler, Melissa H., Forster, Jean L., Finnegan, John R.. Individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status effects on adolescent smoking: A multilevel cohort-sequential latent growth analysis. American Journal of Public Health.103, (3), 543-548.2013.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300830 (DOI)
  • Bernat, Debra H., Choi, Kelvin, Erickson, Darin J., Lenk, Kathleen, Forster, Jean L.. Minnesota's comprehensive statewide smokefree law: Short-term effects on young adults. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.43, (5), S156-S162.2012.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.07.030 (DOI)
  • Bernat, Debra H., Klein, Elizabeth G., Forster, Jean L.. Smoking initiation during young adulthood: A longitudinal study of a population-based cohort. Journal of Adolescent Health.51, (5), 497-502.2012.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.02.017 (DOI)
  • Choi, Kelvin, Fabian, Lindsey, Mottey, Neli, Corbett, Amanda, Forster, Jean. Young adults' favorable perceptions of snus, dissolvable tobacco products, and electronic cigarettes: Findings from a focus group study. American Journal of Public Health.102, (11), 2088-2093.2012.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300525 (DOI)
  • Choi, Kelvin, Forster, Jean, Erickson, Darin, Lazovich, DeAnn, Southwell, Brian G.. The reciprocal relationships between changes in adolescent perceived prevalence of smoking in movies and progression of smoking status. Tobacco Control.21, 492-496.2012.
    • ID: 10.1136/tc.2011.044099 (DOI)
  • Goldade, Kate, Choi, Kelvin, Bernat, Debra H., Klein, Elizabeth G., Okuyemi, Kolawole S., Forster, Jean. Multilevel predictors of smoking initiation among adolescents: Findings from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) study. Preventive Medicine.54, (3), 242-246.2012.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.12.029 (DOI)
  • Klein, Elizabeth G., Bernat, Debra H., Forster, Jean L.. Young adult perceptions of smoking in outdoor park areas. Health and Place.18, (5), 1042-1045.2012.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2012.06.002 (DOI)
  • Lenk, Kathleen, Rode, Peter, Fabian, Lindsey, Bernat, Debra, Klein, Elizabeth, Forster, Jean. Cigarette use among young adults: Comparisons between 2-year college students, 4-year college students, and those not in college. Journal of American College Health.60, (4), 303-308.2012.
    • ID: 10.1080/07448481.2011.607481 (DOI)
  • Choi, Kelvin, Forster, Jean L., Erickson, Darin J., Lazovich, DeAnn, Southwell, Brian G.. Prevalence of smoking in movies as perceived by teenagers: Longitudinal trends and predictors. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.41, (2), 167-173.2011.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.amepre.2011.04.010 (DOI)
  • Choi, T.C. Kelvin, Toomey, Traci L., Chen, Vincent, Forster, Jean L.. Awareness and reported consequences of a cigarette tax increase among older adolescents and young adults. American Journal of Health Promotion.25, (6), 379-386.2011.
    • ID: 10.4278/ajhp.090706-QUAN-215 (DOI)
  • Fabian, Lindsey E.A., Bernat, Debra H., Lenk, Kathleen M., Shi, Qun, Forster, Jean L.. Smoke-free laws in bars and restaurants: Does support among teens and young adults change after a statewide smoke-free law?. Public Health Reports.126, (5), 669-676.2011.
  • Forster, Jean, Chen, Vincent, Perry, Cheryl, Oswald, John, Willmorth, Michael. The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study: Design and baseline results. Prevention Science.12, (2), 201-210.2011.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11121-011-0205-x (DOI)
  • Jansen, P., Toomey, T.L., Nelson, T.F., Fabian, L.E.A., Lenk, K.M., Forster, J.L.. Sources of cigarettes among adolescent smokers: Free or purchased?. American Journal of Health Education.42, (3), 154-160.2011.
  • Bernat, Debra H., Erickson, Darin J., Shi, Qun, Fabian, Lindsey E., Forster, Jean L.. Short-term effects of a comprehensive, statewide smokefree law on perceived opportunities to smoke. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.39, (6 Sup1), S23-S29.2010.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.amepre.2010.08.016 (DOI)
  • Alesci, Nina L., Forster, Jean L., Erickson, Darin J.. Did youth smoking behaviors change before and after the shutdown of Minnesota Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative?. Nicotine and Tobacco Research.11, (10), 1196-1204.2009.
    • ID: 10.1093/ntr/ntp124 (DOI)
  • Bernat, D.H., Lazovich, D., Forster, J.L., Oakes, J.M., Chen, V.. Area-level variation in adolescent smoking. Preventing Chronic Disease.6, (2), A422009.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Bernat, Debra H., Klein, Elizabeth G., Fabian, Lindsey E.A., Forster, Jean L.. Young adult support for clean indoor air laws in restaurants and bars. Journal of Adolescent Health.45, (1), 102-104.2009.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.12.023 (DOI)
  • Klein, E.G., Forster, J.L., Erickson, D.J., Lytle, L.A., Schillo, B.. Does the type of CIA policy significantly affect bar and restaurant employment in Minnesota cities?. Prevention Science.10, (2), 168-174.2009.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11121-009-0122-4 (DOI)
  • Klein, E.G., Forster, J.L., Erickson, D.J., Lytle, L.A., Schillo, B.. The relationship between local clean indoor air policies and smoking behaviours in Minnesota youth. Tobacco Control.18, 132-137.2009.
    • ID: 10.1136/tc.2007.024307 (DOI)
  • Lenk, Kathleen M., Chen, Vincent, Bernat, Debra H., Forster, Jean L., Rode, Peter A.. Characterizing and comparing young adult intermittent and daily smokers. Substance Use and Misuse.44, (14), 2128-2140.2009.
    • ID: 10.3109/10826080902864571 (DOI)
  • Toomey, Traci L., Chen, Vincent, Forster, Jean L., Van Coevering, Pam, Lenk, Kathleen M.. Do cigarette prices vary by brand, neighborhood, and store characteristics?. Public Health Reports.124, (4), 535-540.2009.
  • Bernat, Debra H., Erickson, Darin J., Widome, Rachel, Perry, Cheryl L., Forster, Jean L.. Adolescent smoking trajectories: Results from a population-based cohort study. Journal of Adolescent Health.43, (4), 334-340.2008.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.02.014 (DOI)
  • Lazovich, DeAnn, Forster, Jean, Widome, Rachel, VanCoevering, Pam. Tobacco possession, use, and purchase laws and penalties in Minnesota: Enforcement, tobacco diversion programs, and youth awareness. Nicotine and Tobacco Research.9, (S1), S57-S64.2007.
    • ID: 10.1080/14622200601083475 (DOI)
  • Widome, Rachel, Forster, Jean L., Hannan, Peter J., Perry, Cheryl L.. Longitudinal patterns of youth access to cigarettes and smoking progression: Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) study (2000-–2003). Preventive Medicine.45, (6), 442-446.2007.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.07.016 (DOI)

Update Metadata: 2016-02-03 | Issue Number: 1 | Registration Date: 2016-02-03

Forster, Jean (2016): Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study 2000-2013. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.