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Pain, Range of Motion, and Psychological Symptoms in a Population with Frozen Shoulder: A Randomized Controlled Dismantling Study of Clinical EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques)

Resource Type
Dataset : clinical data
  • Church, Dawson (National Institute for Integrative Healthcare)
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Free Keywords
anxiety; cognitive functioning; depression (psychology); injuries; pain; physical limitations; physical therapy; psychological effects; psychological wellbeing; treatment
  • Abstract

    Clinical EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) combines acupoint stimulation with elements of cognitive and exposure therapy. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of EFT for depression, anxiety, phobias, PTSD, and other psychological conditions. The current study assesses whether acupoint stimulation is an active ingredient or whether treatment effects are due to non-specific factors. Thirty-seven participants with "frozen shoulder" consisting of limited range of motion (ROM) and pain were randomized into a wait list, or one of two treatment groups. ROM, pain, and the breadth and depth of psychological conditions such as anxiety and depression were assessed before and after a 30-minute treatment session, and 30 days later. One treatment group received Clinical EFT, while the other received an identical cognitive/exposure protocol but with diaphragmatic breathing (DB) substituted for acupoint stimulation. No significant improvement in any psychological symptom was found in the wait list. Participants in the both the EFT and DB groups demonstrated significant posttest improvement in psychological symptoms and pain. Follow-up showed that both groups maintained their gains for pain, with EFT superior to DB, but only the EFT group maintained gains for psychological symptoms (p less than 0.001). Large EFT treatment effects were found, with a Cohen's d = .9 for anxiety and pain, and d = 1.1 for depression. Though EFT showed a greater trend for improved ROM in most dimensions of movement, changes were non-significant for most measures in all groups. Reductions in psychological distress were associated with reduced pain as well as with improved ROM. The results are consistent with five earlier dismantling studies showing that acupoint stimulation is an active ingredient in EFT treatment. The study adds further support to other clinical trials indicating that Clinical EFT is an efficacious evidence-based treatment for pain and psychological conditions.
  • Methods

    Presence of Common Scales: SA-45
  • Methods

    Response Rates: 100%
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • 2009 / 2010
    Time period: 2009--2010
  • 2009-02-18 / 2010-10-05
    Collection date: 2009-02-18--2010-10-05
Geographic Coverage
  • California
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Subjects with "Frozen Shoulder." Smallest Geographic Unit: County
Participants responded to flyers in clinics seeking subjects for a frozen shoulder study.
Collection Mode
  • face-to-face interview

One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 36428 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR36428.v1

Update Metadata: 2016-05-25 | Issue Number: 1 | Registration Date: 2016-05-25

Church, Dawson (2016): Pain, Range of Motion, and Psychological Symptoms in a Population with Frozen Shoulder: A Randomized Controlled Dismantling Study of Clinical EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques). Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.