International Social Justice Project 1991 and 1996 (ISJP 1991 and 1996)

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • Wegener, Bernd (Universität Heidelberg und Humboldt Universität Berlin)
  • Mason, David S. (Butler University, Indianapolis)
  • International Social Justice Project (ISJP)
Publication Date
  • Akademie der Wissenschaften, Bulgarien (Data Collector)
  • VITOSHA RESEARCH (Center for the Study of Democracy), Sofia, Bulgarien (Data Collector)
  • STEM, Tschechische Republik (Data Collector)
  • ZUMA/INFAS, Deutschland (Data Collector)
  • GFM-GETAS, Hamburg, Deutschland (Data Collector)
  • Saar Poll, Estland (Data Collector)
  • RSGB, Grossbritannien (Data Collector)
  • TARKI, Ungarn (Data Collector)
  • Minority Research Institut, Ungarn (Data Collector)
  • SRF, Niederlande (Data Collector)
  • ISS, Polen (Data Collector)
  • VCIOM, Russland (Data Collector)
  • ISS, Slowenien (Data Collector)
  • ISR/SRC, USA (Data Collector)
  • ZA:
    • Society, Culture
  • CESSDA Topic Classification:
    • Employment
    • Social conditions and indicators
    • Social behaviour and attitudes
    • Mass political behaviour, attitudes/opinion
    • Equality and inequality
    • Social and occupational mobility
    • Income, property and investment/saving
    • Economic conditions and indicators
  • Abstract

    Follow-up survey at an interval of five years with the same major topics: 1. The social and occupational situation of the respondent and his relatives, 2. The attitudes to social inequality, 3. The financial situation and attitudes to income questions and 4. Political attitudes and concepts of justice. Topics: 1. Social and occupational situation: housing conditions; number of persons in the household; sex, age and family relation of all persons living in the household; number of persons employed in the household; employment and employer of respondent; occupation; exact description of occupational activity; type and size of company; supervisor status and span of control; duration of employment in this company; unemployment in the last 10 years; type and year of highest school degree; occupational training; marital status; partnership; type and year of school degree of partner; occupational training of partner; employment of partner; type of company of partner; occupational position of partner; exact description of occupational activity of partner; time of start of possible unemployment; employment of father in youth of respondent or reason for non-employment and occupational position of father as well as exact description of the occupation (social origins); earlier employer; length of earlier employment and type of company; occupational position in this earlier employment and exact description of this activity; religious denomination; frequency of church attendance; solidarity with the religious community; union membership of respondent and persons in the household; solidarity with trade unions; In Germany: place of residence before 1989, place of birth, length of residence and previous place of residence, each differentiated according to East and West. 2. Attitudes to social inequality: self-assessment on a class scale as well as a top-bottom scale (in Germany: also before 1989); assessment of the proportion of poor and rich people in one's country (in Germany: assessment of the proportion for East and West respectively); expected development of the relationship and perceived reasons for the presence of poor and rich in the country (scale); estimated reasons for injustices personally experienced (scale; in Eastern Germany: differentiated before the turning point 1989 and after the turning point 1989); attitude to achievement-based income differences (scale); preferred criteria for establishing salary payments (scale); current actual criteria for payment in effect (scale); attitude to the role of the state and to privatization. 3. Financial situation and attitudes to income questions: current and future satisfaction with income, employment, the standard of living, the political system of the country and with life in general (scale; in Germany: satisfaction before 1989); sources of income of household; number of persons contributing to household income; monthly household income; comparison of the financial situation of the household with the time year ago, before 1989 and in three years; assessment, whether current monthly household income is suitable for personal needs; assessment of monthly household income necessary; personal monthly income from employment; assessment whether the payment of one's own work is appropriate; level of a fair personal income; comparison of personal income with the country average, with persons with the same training and with persons with similar occupation (in Germany: with training and occupation each comparison with personal part of the country, East or West); estimate of monthly income of a board chairman of a large business and an unskilled worker, judgement on these incomes (scales) and recommendation for an appropriate monthly income for a board chairman and for an unskilled worker; judgement on the extent of income differences between occupations in the country (in Germany: separate questions for East and West). 4. Political attitudes and concepts of justice: behavior at the polls in the last political election; party preference (Sunday question); party inclination; interest in politics (scale); participation in political protest actions and political participation; functioning of democracy in the country and effectiveness of politics; trust in the government; assessment whether the activity of the government serves the public good; self-assessment on a left-right continuum; assessment of the opportunities actually available and achievement orientation in the country; attitude to questions of distribution fairness (scales); attitude to unequal social and financial conditions (scale); social justness in the public public health system, in the area of private business and in the naturalization of foreigners (moral dilemma situations); assessment of the importance of various prerequisites for upward social mobility (career); attitude to more welfare state or more personal responsibility. In Eastern Germany: attitude to socialism; assessment of personal losses or gains through unification of Germany. Interviewer rating: presence of additional persons; intervention in the interview by persons present; willingness of respondent to cooperate; reliability of information of respondent. Also encoded was: date of interview; length of interview; number of contact attempts; sex of interviewer; age of interviewer; school education of interviewer; interviewer number; possession of a telephone.
Temporal Coverage
  • 1991-02 / 1996-12
    1991: from February to November (all countries) 1992: from February to March (Estonia) 1996: from September to December (not in Japan, Poland, Great Britain, the USA, Slovenia and Slovakia.
Geographic Coverage
  • Bulgaria (BG)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Hungary (HU)
  • Japan (JP)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Poland (PL)
  • Great Britain (GB-GBN)
  • United States (US)
  • Russian Federation (RU)
  • Slovenia (SI)
  • Czech Republic (CZ)
  • Estonia (EE)
  • Slovakia (SK)
Sampled Universe
Persons 18 years old and older.
Sampling Procedure Comment: Multi-stage stratified random sample or quota sample
Collection Mode
  • Oral (in the USA: by telephone) survey with standardized questionnaire
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Individual
    Number of Units: 25805
    Number of Variables: 934
In both survey years approx. 1000 interviews were conducted per country. In some countries the number of conducted interview is smaller (Slovakia 370) and in others larger (FRG West 1800). The 1996 survey was not conducted in Japan, Poland, Great Britain, the USA, Slovenia and Slovakia. In the Federal Republic of Germany there are separate samples for East and West. The 1996 investigation for Western Germany is not yet available in the Archive. The survey period 1991 lasted from February to November. Only in Estonia were the data collected from February to March 1992. In 1996 the investigations were conducted from September to December. The following Internet page of the University of Illinios provides further information on the methodological procedure in the 1996 investigation:
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA3522 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • Kluegel, James R.; Mason, David S.; Wegener, Bernd (eds.): Social Justice And Political Change: Public Opinion in Capitalist and Post-Communist States. Berlin: de Gruyter 1995.
  • Mason, David S. et al.: Marketing Democracy: Changing Opinion About Inequality and Politics in East Central Europe. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers 2000.

Update Metadata: 2021-04-07 | Issue Number: 88 | Registration Date: 2010-07-22