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Stereotype Threat as a Cause for the low Achievement of Students With Migration Background in the German Educational System (Stereotype Threat)

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data, achievement test
  • Martiny, Sarah E. (University Konstanz)
  • Fröhlich, Laura
  • Mok, Sog Yee
  • Deaux, Kay
Publication Date
Free Keywords
Turc; Achievement Assessment; Educational Opportunity; Student; Germany; German; Mathematics; Migration Background; Performance Gap; Survey; Experiment; Performance Tests; Achievement; Influencing Factor; Language Skills; Mathematical Achievement; Disadvantage; Stereotype; Equal Opportunity; Student Achievement
  • Abstract

    The aim of the research project was to examine the influence of ability-related negative stereotypes on different domains of academic achievement of students with (Turkish) migration background in the German educational system. It was hypothesized, that differences in achievement between students with and without migration background are partly due to negative stereotypes regarding immigrants, and the activation of these negative achievement related stereotypes in testing situations. Firstly, in a series of experimental studies, the activation of negative stereotypes in testing situations was systematically manipulated; the effects of this manipulation on student achievement in language and mathematical achievement tests (e.g. PISA) was investigated in students with and without migration background. The effects of different ways of activating stereotypes were compared with each other and with control conditions in which no stereotypes were activated. Secondly, the impact of the migrating generation and the age of students with and without migration background on dealing with stereotype activation and its consequences for achievement were investigated. [The activation of achievement related negative stereotypes influenced the achievement of both students with and without migration background. If achievement related group differences were pointed out prior to the test, there was a significant difference between the mathematical achievement of German students and students with Turkish migration background. If however, prior to testing, it was said that no differences between the groups exist, no achievement differences between the groups showed in the subsequent test.] (DIPF/funding agency). The project was divided into several studies: Study description 1a: It was assessed whether implicit theories of intelligence moderate the effects of stereotype threat. Implicit theories of intelligence are subjective beliefs of persons regarding the stability (entity theory) or variability (incremental theory) of intelligence (Dweck, 1999). The combination of stereotype threat (which implies the ability of a group to be stable) and the stability beliefs regarding their own ability should lead to especially heavy losses in achievement for migrants of Turkish origin. Study description 1b: The impact of negative stereotypes on the mathematical achievement of students with a Turkish migration background was investigated. Additionally to migration background (Turkish vs. no migration background) the variable “self-chosen ethnic group identity” was investigated. Study description 1c DE: It was investigated whether implicit theories of intelligence moderate the effect of stereotype threat on students of Turkish origin (in combination with an examiner of German origin). Study description 3c: Survey concerning group identification and public regard in immigrants of Turkish origin and their contact to Germans.

Temporal Coverage
  • 2012-07-01 / 2012-07-31
  • 2012-12-01 / 2012-12-31
  • 2013-02-01 / 2013-03-31
  • 2013-05-01 / 2013-07-01
Geographic Coverage
  • Baden-Wuerttemberg
  • Berlin
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
Sampled Universe

Study 1a: students in grade 9 (N=310)

Study 1b: students in grade 9 (N=230)

Study 1c DE: students in grade 9 (N=298)

Study 3c: students in grade 9 and 10 (N=279)


Non-Probability Sample

Time Dimension
  • Longitudinal
Collection Mode
  • achievement test

  • Self-administered questionnaire: Paper
application required:
CC0 1.0 Universal
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.5159/IQB_Stereotype_Threat_v2
  • Martiny, S.E, Mok, S.Y., Gleibs, I.H., Keller, M.M. und Froehlich, L. (2016) “The Relationship between Ethnic Classoom Composition and Turkish-Origin and German Students' Reading Performance and Sense of Belonging”, Frontiers psychology 7/2016.

  • Martiny, S.E. (2016): Stereotype Threat als Ursache niedriger Leistungen von Schülerinnen und Schülern mit Migrationshintergrund im deutschen Bildungssystem. Konstanz: Universität Konstanz.

  • Martiny, S.E., Mok, S.Y., Deaux, K. und Froehlich, L. (2014). Effects of activating negative stereotypes about Turkish-origin students on performance and identity management in German high schools. Revue internationale de psychologie sociale 3/2014 (Volume 27), p. 205-225.

Update Metadata: 2017-12-21 | Issue Number: 9 | Registration Date: 2016-05-27

Martiny, Sarah E.; Fröhlich, Laura; Mok, Sog Yee; Deaux, Kay (2016): Stereotype Threat als Ursache niedriger Leistungen von Schülerinnen und Schülern mit Migrationshintergrund im deutschen Bildungssystem (Stereotype Threat). Version: 1. IQB – Institut zur Qualitätsentwicklung im Bildungswesen. Dataset.