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Religious and Moral Pluralism (RAMP)

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • Jagodzinski, Wolfgang (Institut für angewandte Sozialforschung, Universität zu Köln)
  • Dobbelaere, Karel (Departement Sociologie Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium)
  • Voyé, Liliane (Université Catholique de Louvain, Lovain-La Neuve, Belgium)
  • Riis, Ole (Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark)
  • Heino, Harri (Finland)
  • Holm, Nils (Finland)
  • Barker, Eileen (Department of Sociology, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, Great Britain)
  • Tomka, Miklos (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary)
  • Tomasi, Luigi (Italy)
  • Halman, Loek (Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands)
  • Scheepers, Peer (Nijmegen University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands)
  • Sundback, Susan (Norway)
  • Doktor, Tadeusz (Warsaw University, Warswaw, Poland)
  • Vilaca, Helena (Universidade do Porto, Instituto de Sociologia Da Faculdade de Letras, Portugal)
  • Gustafsson, Goran (Sweden)
  • Pettersson, Thorleif (University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden)
Publication Date
  • Coordination: Institut für angewandte Sozialforschung, Universität zu Köln (Germany) (Data Collector)
  • Belgium: ISPO, Katholische Universität Leuven resp. PIOP/UCL (Data Collector)
  • Denemark: TNS GALLUP, Copenhagen (Data Collector)
  • United Kingdom: BMRB INTERNATIONAL (Data Collector)
  • Italy: DOXA, Milan (Data Collector)
  • Finland: Suomen Gallup Oy, Espoo (Data Collector)
  • The Netherlands: Institute for Applied Social Sciences, Nijmegen (Data Collector)
  • Norway: Scan-Fact (Data Collector)
  • Poland: CENTRUM BADANIA OPINI SPOCECZNEJ (CBOS), Warsaw (Data Collector)
  • Portugal: Universidade do Porto, Instituto de SociologiaDa Faculdade de Letras (Data Collector)
  • Sweden: Scan-Fact (Data Collector)
  • Hungary: Information not available. (Data Collector)
  • ZA:
    • Religion and "Weltanschauung"
  • CESSDA Topic Classification:
    • Religion and values
  • Abstract

    Religious beliefs and moral attitudes. Thopics: perceived change in violence on the streets, bribery, adultery and tax evasion during the last 10 years; justifyability of tax evasion (scale); justifyability of death penality; attitude towards: homosexual adoption, right to commit suicide, men more right for job than women; attitudes towards abortion in different circumstances (scale); individual or public responsability for pensions; cuts in unemployment benefits; smoking ni public buildings; goals in education of children: indepdendence, obedience, creativity; attitudes towards income differeces; attitudes towards homeless people in neighbourhood; acceptance of nepotism (Kohlberg); Criteria for selecting patients for important surgery in hospitals; attitudes towards euthanasia; rules about good and bad; source of morality (scale); control over life; solving problems: individual vs. society; social orientation; volunteering: religious organizations, non-religious organizations; geographical mobility; residence of best friend; nationality of respondent; nationality of mother; nationality of father; attitudes towards migrants (ethnocentrism); political interest; party preference; least preferred party; reception of political news; concept of god; beliefs about life after death; salvation; conditions of salvation; theodizee (scale); respondent´s religiosity (self-assessment); beliefs influence daily life; beliefs influence important decisions; spiritual life; church attendance; frequency of praying; religious services: birth, marriage, death; conceptions of jesus; conceptions of the bible; dramatic change around millennium; denominational membership; closeness to church; women as priests; conversion experience; church attendance at age 12; transcendental experiences; possession of holy object; power of holy obejct; possession of talisman or lucky charm; power of talisman or lucky charm; consult horoscope; take horoscope into account in daily life; share of friends with different religion; perceived percentage of religious people in country; role of religion in world; attitudes towards: girls cover heads, take soft drugs, prevent blood transfusion, commit suicide; attitudes towards religious groups (enrichement, cause of conflict, other religious teachings, Jehovas witness, scientologist); truth in religion; religious symbols in schools; financial support: religious schools, religions; attitudes towards: oath with reference to God; consult religions in making laws, nurse may refuse legal abortion; attitutes towards science; desired influence of churches on politics; perceived influence of churches on politics; Demographics: gender; age (year of birth); highest level of education; emloyment status; status of unpaid work; secondary job; marital status; steady life partner; partner´s highest level of education; partner´s religion; partner´s church attendance; number of children; household (number of children +18; 13-17; 5-12; less than 4); net household income; acceptance of cut in income for solidarity with poorest countries; community size; national ranking of community size; history of church membership; Additionally coded: length of interview; year of interview. Optional questions (not asked in all countries): importance of freedom; importance of equality; God concerned with every individual; God is valuable in humankind; life has meaning because of a God; sorrows have meaning if beliefs in a God; sorrows receive meaning from yourself; death is natural resting point; death is passage to another life; life has meaning if yourself give meaning; Virgin Mary was taken to heaven; believe in saints; father´s religion at age 12; father attend religious services at age 12; mothers´s religion at age 12; mother attend religious services at age 12; education in religious schools; profession (ISCO); partner´s profession (ISCO), community size (not grouped); pope hinders unity of Christians; religious services: sober; religious services: music and ceremonial clothes; pope should adapt his message; laity involvement; meaning of Christmas; month of interview; father´s highest level of education; mother´s level of education; number of household members Additional questions in the BELGIAN questionnaire (only substantial questions. No country specific versions of questions from the masterquestionnaire): meaning of marriage in church; homosexuals may marry; light candle when enter church; water from Lourdes at home; pilgrimage; particular devotion: Jesus Christ, Virgin Mary, other saint; blessing of house; blessing of car; sector of employment; Addtional questions in the BRITISH questionnaire (only substantial questions. No country specific versions of questions from the masterquestionnaire): image of God: mother-father; image of God: master-spouse; image of God: judge-lover; image of God: friend-king; members of religious groups; attended Sunday School; ethnic group in neighbourhood; time lived in UK; women more spiritual than men; CofE stay as established Church in England; if no religion more difficult to have moral behavior; belief in angels; no one can know for certain God exists; telling lies is sometimes necessary; British foces to the Falklands; Britain stop exporting arms; UN troops used in countries with internal problems; people remember past life; religious people are hypocrites or fanatics; everyone should receive Christ into their lives; way of live is more important than believing in doctrines; more attention to environmental issues by religions; mainstream religions more concerned by Milliennium; religious leaders give direction on moral behavior; modern cults are harmful; ´New Age´ ideas are threat to society; one ought to support the national Church; I look after my own interests; freedom of religion became less important; trust into alternative medicine; intelligent life on other planets; churches dead or boring; Jesus will return; happy childhood; people responsible for everything that happens to them; certainty about religious questions; messages from the dead to the living; contact with extraterrestial beings; happier than most people; work of Satan at work in the world today; belief in power of prayer; people affraid of being thought to be racist; crystals have special power; Additional questions in the ITALIAN questionnaire (only substantial questions. No country specific versions of questions from the masterquestionnaire): holy objects: at home, work place, on myself, in wallett, other places; heard about Jehova´a Witnesses; heard about scientology; sign of province;
Temporal Coverage
  • 1998-02-25 / 1998-05-27
  • 1998-08-13 / 1998-11-27
    United Kingdom
  • 1997-12
  • 1999-03-29 / 1999-04-22
  • 1998-10-14 / 1999-02-09
  • 1998-10-30 / 1998-11-12
  • 1998-05-12 / 1998-06-10
  • 1998
    Autumn Finland
  • 1998
    Spring Norway
  • 1998
  • 1997 / 1998
Geographic Coverage
  • Belgium (BE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Finland (FI)
  • United Kingdom (GB)
  • Hungary (HU)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Norway (NO)
  • Poland (PL)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Sweden (SE)
Sampled Universe
Adult resident population older then 18 years (in Italy 17 years). In Belgium, Denmark and Portugal respondents older than 75 years were not interviewed. In the Netherlands respondents older than 85 were not interviewed.
Sampling Procedure Comment: Representative multi-stage or stratified random sample. In Portugal a quota sample was used. Quotes were based on region, age, gender and marital status.
Collection Mode
  • Personal Interviews with standardized questionnaire. The Netherlands used Computer Assisted Personal Interviews. For Hungary the mode of data collection is unknown.
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Individual
    Number of Units: 12328
    Number of Variables: 409
In some countries, the order of the questions deviated from the masterquestionnaire. Optional questions were not asked in all countries. The exact time of fieldwork is unknown for Denmark and Sweden. Please note that due to incomplete harmonization certain socio-demographic variables are difficult to use in comparative data analysis. This concerns educational achievement of respondents, partners and parents (Britain and Scandinavian countries), marital status (Britain) and belonging to religious denominations. This codebook mentions problems of comparability. The sample sizes for the different countries is: Belgium: 1662, Denmark: 606, Finland: 786, United Kingdom: 1466, Hungary: 1000, Italy: 2149, The Netherlands: 1004, Norway: 503, Poland: 1134, Portugal: 986, Sweden: 1032 No weights are available for the cumulated dataset. Country specific weights are available for the following countries: Belgium (weight for age, gender and education. Weights are available for Belgium and for the federal states); Italy (weight for age, education and region); The Netherlands (weight for gender, birth cohorts and marital status); Finland (weight corrects for oversampling of the swedish speaking population in Finland); Poland (weight corrects different sampling probabilities due to the stratification in sampling. In addition, the weights correct for biased distribution in gender and age); Portugal (weights not documented); United Kingdom (weight corrects for different sampling probabilities due to different household sized and adapts distributions of age and gender to distributions of the target population).
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
All metadata from GESIS DBK are available free of restriction under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. However, GESIS requests that you actively acknowledge and give attribution to all metadata sources, such as the data providers and any data aggregators, including GESIS. For further information see
Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA3170 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • Draulans, Veerle; Halman, Loek: Religious and Moral Pluralism in Contemporary Europe. In: Arts, Wil; Hagenaars, Jacques; Halman, Loek (eds.): The Cultural Diversity of European Unity. Leiden, Boston: Brill 2003, pp. 371-400
  • Heelas, Paul; Houtman, Dick: RAMP Findings and Making Sense of the ´God Within Each Person, Rather than Out There´. In: Journal of Contemporary Religion, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2009, pp. 83-99
  • Siegers, Pascal: A Multiple Group Latent Class Analysis of Religious Orientations in Europe. In: Davidov, Eldad; Schmidt, Peter; Billiet, Jaak (eds.): Cross-Cultural Analysis: Methods and Applications. New York: Routledge 2010, pp. 387-413
  • Strom, Ingrid: Halfway to Heaven: Four types of Fuzzy Fidelity in Europe. In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 48, No. 4, 2009, pp. 702-718
  • Riis, Ole, Dobbelaere, Karel: Religious and Moral Pluralism: Theories, Research Questions, and Design. In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 13, 2002, pp. 159-171
  • Pettersson, Thorleif; Halman, Loek: Moral Pluralism in Contemporary Europe: Evidence from the Project Religious and Moral Pluralism (RAMP), In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 13, 2002, pp. 173-204

Update Metadata: 2020-10-21 | Issue Number: 15 | Registration Date: 2016-06-21

Jagodzinski, Wolfgang; Dobbelaere, Karel; Voyé, Liliane; Riis, Ole; Heino, Harri et. al. (2013): Religious and Moral Pluralism (RAMP). Version: 2.0.0. GESIS Data Archive. Dataset.