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Survey of Russian Elites, Moscow, Russia, 1993-2016

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Zimmerman, William
  • Rivera, Sharon Werning
  • Kalinin, Kirill
Other Title
  • Version 3 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Publication Place
Ann Arbor, Michigan
  • Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research
Funding Reference
  • National Council for Eurasian and East European Research
  • William Davidson Institute
  • John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
  • Carnegie Corporation
  • University of Michigan. Weiser Center for Europe and Eurasia
  • Higher School of Economics in St. Petersburg
  • Hamilton College. Arthur Levitt Public Affairs Center
Free Keywords
Schema: ICPSR
business elites; democracy; economic issues; elites; foreign policy; government elites; international relations; military elites; military intervention; national economy; national interests; national politics; national security; NATO; political elites
  • Abstract

    The Survey of Russian Elites consists of one dataset that covers the years 1993, 1995, 1999, 2004, 2008, 2012, and 2016. The data were collected as part of a larger study of mass-elite interactions in post-Soviet Russia, with particular emphasis on the links between the domestic political economy and foreign policy perspectives. The dataset includes questions on international relations, threat perceptions, foreign policy decision-making, domestic politics, and economic issues. In particular, respondents were asked their opinions about the national interests of Russia, the role of military force in international relations, the greatest threats to stability and security, the enlargement of the European Union, NATO expansion, the need for order in Russia, and how closely Russia should follow the path of developed countries. Additional questions asked respondents about their level of influence on foreign policy decision-making, how they find out about world and domestic events, how often they discuss such events with friends or family members, whether the United States represents a threat to Russia, whether they favor giving military aid to other countries, the importance of various foreign policy goals to Russia, the influence of various governmental institutions on foreign policy, and the permissibility of using military force. Questions focusing on domestic issues asked about their attitudes regarding government spending, the rights of individuals versus those of society, the role of political competition, the responsibility of the government to its citizens, the importance and meaning of democracy, and the type of political system that is most appropriate for Russia. Respondents were also asked about Russia's relations with other countries (e.g., Ukraine, Belarus, Japan, and China), various forms of property ownership, their willingness to open a new business, national pride, political protests, the environment, their views toward immigrants and other societal groups, and Russia's political and economic future. Demographic questions include nationality, education, occupation of the respondent and other family members, sex, age, country of birth, marital status, language spoken in the home, income level, household composition, political party affiliation, religion, military service, and foreign travel.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Created online analysis version with question text.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Presence of Common Scales: Several Likert-Type Scales were used.
  • Abstract


    • DS1: Survey of Russian Elites, Moscow, Russia, 1993-2016
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1993--2016
  • 1993 / 2016
  • Collection date: 1992-12--2016-03
  • 1992-12 / 2016-03
Geographic Coverage
  • Moscow
  • Russia
Sampled Universe
Moscow-based elites working in the major public and private sectors of Russian society.
Interviews were conducted with high-ranking individuals employed in a broad range of institutions in Moscow: the media, state-owned enterprises, private businesses, academic institutions with strong international connections, the executive branch of the government, the federal legislature, and the armed forces and security agencies.
Collection Mode
  • face-to-face interview
2019-09-11 The former Dataset 1 (1999 data only) was retired per P.I. request; all 1999 data are available in the combined 1993-2016 dataset. Furthermore, the combined 1993-2016 dataset was resupplied by the P.I. to correct data entry errors and minor value label corrections were incorporated by ICPSR. The study documentation has been updated to include a resupplied version of the P.I. codebook and an updated ICPSR codebook.2018-06-13 Author names were corrected, and the codebook was updated to reflect this correction.2018-05-09 Title was changed from "Survey of Russian Elites: 1993-2012 [Moscow, Russia]" to "Survey of Russian Elites, Moscow, Russia, 1993-2016." This dataset combines data from the previously deposited datasets to include the sampling year 2016.2016-06-23 Dataset 2 was updated to address an error in the data.2014-07-28 1. A second dataset has been added that reflects the years 1993-2012. 2. Dataset 1 was updated with variable and value labels. 3. Variable names in Dataset 1 were changed to correspond with the variable names in Dataset 2. Funding institution(s): National Council for Eurasian and East European Research. William Davidson Institute. John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Carnegie Corporation. University of Michigan. Weiser Center for Europe and Eurasia. Higher School of Economics in St. Petersburg. Hamilton College. Arthur Levitt Public Affairs Center.
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3724 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR03724.v4
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR03724.v2
  • Ponarin, Eduard, Komin, Michael. Imperial and ethnic nationalism: A dilemma of the Russian elite. Russia Before and After Crimea: Nationalism and Identity, 2010-17.Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 2018.
  • Rivera, Sharon Werning. Is Russia too unique to learn from abroad? Elite views on foreign borrowing and the west, 1993-2001. Sravnitel'naya Politika.1, (22), 31-40.2016.
    • ID: 10.18611/2221-3279-2016-7-1(22)-31-40 (DOI)
  • Rivera, Sharon Werning, Bryan, James, Camacho-Lovell, Brisa, Fineman, Carlos, Klemmer, Nora, Raynor, Emma. The Russian Elite 2016: Perspectives on Foreign and Domestic Policy. 2016 Hamilton College Levitt Poll.. 2016.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Rivera, Sharon Werning, Bryan, James, Raynor, Emma, Sobczak, Hunter. Russian elites are more militaristic and anti-American than they’ve been in years. Monkey Cage [blog].Blog post, Washington, DC: The Washington Post. 2016.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Ponarin, Eduard, Sokolov, Boris. Global'naya politika glazami rossiiskoi elity: Analiz dannykh oprosov 1993-2012. Rossiya v Global'noi Politike.5, 100-112.2014.
  • Zimmerman, William, Inglehart, Ronald, Ponarin, Eduard, Lazarev, Yegor, Sokolov, Boris, Vartanova, Irina, Turanova, Yekaterina. Russian Elite -- 2020. Valdai Discussion Club Grantees Analytical Report.Moscow, Russia: Valdai Discussion Club. 2013.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Zimmerman, William. Russian national interests, use of blood and treasure, and energy price assessments: 2008-2009. Post-Soviet Affairs.25, (3), 185-208.2009.
    • ID: 10.2747/1060-586X.24.3.185 (DOI)
  • Zimmerman, William. Slavophiles and westernizers redux: Contemporary Russian elite perspectives. Post-Soviet Affairs.25, (3), 183-209.2005.
    • ID: 10.2747/1060-586X.21.3.183 (DOI)
  • Zimmerman, William. The Russian People and Foreign Policy: Russian Elite and Mass Perspectives, 1993-2000. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 2002.
  • Zimmerman, William. Survey research and Russian perspectives on NATO expansion. Post-Soviet Affairs.17, (3), 235-261.2001.
  • Kullberg, Judith S., Zimmerman, William. Liberal elites, socialist masses, and problems of Russian democracy. World Politics.51, (3), 323-358.1999.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0043887100009102 (DOI)
  • Braumoeller, Bear F.. Deadly doves: Liberal nationalism and the democratic peace in the Soviet successor states. International Studies Quarterly.41, (3), 375-402.1997.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Zimmerman, William. Markets, democracy and Russian foreign policy. Post-Soviet Affairs.10, (2), 103-126.1994.
    • ID: 10.1080/1060586X.1994.10641379 (DOI)

Update Metadata: 2019-09-12 | Issue Number: 4 | Registration Date: 2016-06-23

Zimmerman, William; Rivera, Sharon Werning; Kalinin, Kirill (2003): Survey of Russian Elites, Moscow, Russia, 1993-2016. Version 3. Version: v3. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.