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Danish 1905 Cohort Study, 1998

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Christensen, Kaare (University of Southern Denmark. Institute of Public Health)
  • Duke University
Other Title
  • Version 3 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • Danish National Research Foundation
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Aging
Free Keywords
activities of daily living; aging; assisted living; assistive devices; cognitive functioning; disease; eldercare; health services utilization; health status; home care; mental health; older adults; physical fitness; physical limitations; social networks
  • Abstract

    This data collection provides information on individuals born in Denmark in 1905 and who were still living in Denmark in 1998. The overall goal of the study was to establish a genetic-epidemiological database to shed light on the aging process among the extremely old. The data focus on their physical and cognitive functioning. Respondents were asked if they had been previously diagnosed with diseases such as diabetes, arthritis, asthma, migraine, cancer, stroke, heart attack, or depression, and if they were experiencing such ailments as cough, body pains, and bone fracture and were taking medication for them. Questions probed respondents' feelings about their health, life, and future. To assess respondents' general health and functioning, they were asked if they needed assistance with toileting, bathing, dressing, and mobility around the house; how often they needed to use the bathroom during the night; and if they used physical aids such as wheelchairs, eyeglasses, crutches, catheters, or diapers. They were also tested for memory and cognition, mobility, vision, speech, hearing, and lung functioning. Information was also elicited on respondents' mental state and awareness, energy level, menopause, frequency of visits with children and family, visits from a nurse, use of home care services, sleeping patterns, smoking and drinking habits, weight gain or loss, exercises, social activities, hobbies, reading habits, television viewing, and recent deaths in the family. Demographic information includes age, education, and marital status.
  • Methods

    The data are not weighted and contain no weights.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Response Rates: 63 percent
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • 1905 / 1998
    Time period: 1905--1998
  • Collection date: 1998
Geographic Coverage
  • Denmark
  • Global
Sampled Universe
All individuals born in Denmark in 1905, excluding the Faroe Islands and Greenland, and who were still living in Denmark in 1998. Smallest Geographic Unit: none
A total of 2,262 persons born in Denmark in 1905. In cases where the individual was cognitively or physically impaired a proxy answered the questions. A home-based two-hour multidimensional interview, including cognitive and physical performance tests and collection of DNA, was carried out by lay interviewers. Population-based registers were used to evaluate how representative the sample was of the population. The participants were located through the Danish Central Office of Civil Registration.
Collection Mode
  • face-to-face interview

    The data, setup files, and documentation for this collection contain characters with diacritical marks used in the Danish language.

2016-08-22 Respondent ID has been removed to comply with current Danish legislation. ICPSR added English question text to the collection.2010-06-03 The data are restricted, but the documentation is available for download.2008-02-11 Minor edits were made to the metadata. Funding insitution(s): Danish National Research Foundation ( United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Aging (PO1AG08761).
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3960 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR03960.v2
  • Doty, Richard L., Petersen, Inge, Mensah, Nii, Christensen, Kaare. Genetic and environmental influences on odor identification ability in the very old. Psychology and Aging.26, (4), 864-871.2011.
    • ID: 10.1037/a0023263 (DOI)
  • Mengel-From, Jonas, Christensen, Kaare, McGuea, Matt, Christiansen, Lene. Genetic variations in the CLU and PICALM genes are associated with cognitive function in the oldest old. Neurobiology of Aging.32, (3), 554.e7-554.e11.2011.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.07.016 (DOI)
  • Mengel-From, Jonas, Thinggaard, Mikael, Christiansen, Lene, Vaupel, James W., Ørstavik, Karen Helene, Christensen, Kaare. Skewed X inactivation and survival: A 13-year follow-up study of elderly twins and singletons. European Journal of Human Genetics.2011.
    • ID: 10.1038/ejhg.2011.215 (DOI)
  • Dato, Serena, Krabbe, Karen S., Thinggaard, Mikael, Pedersen, Bente K., Christensen, Kaare, Bruunsgaard, Helle, Christiansen, Lene. Commonly studied polymorphisms in inflammatory cytokine genes show only minor effects on mortality and related risk factors in nonagenarians. Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences.65A, (3), 225-235.2010.
    • ID: 10.1093/gerona/glp210 (DOI)
  • Newman, Anne B., Walter, Stefan, Lunetta, Kathryn L., Garcia, Melissa E., Slagboom, P. Eline, Christensen, Kaare, Arnold, Alice M., Aspelund, Thor, Aulchenko, Yurii S., Benjamin, Emelia J., Christiansen, Lene, D'Agostino, Ralph B., Fitzpatrick, Annette L.. A meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies of survival to age 90 years or older: The cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology consortium. Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences.65A, (5), 478-487.2010.
    • ID: 10.1093/gerona/glq028 (DOI)
  • Oksuzyan, A., Crimmins, E., Saito, Y., O'Rand, A., Vaupel, J.W., Christensen, K.. Cross-national comparison of sex differences in health and mortality in Denmark, Japan and the US. European Journal of Epidemiology.25, (7), 471-480.2010.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10654-010-9460-6 (DOI)
  • Oksuzyan, A., Maier, H., McGue, M., Vaupel, J.W., Christensen, K.. Sex differences in the level and rate of change of physical function and grip strength in the Danish 1905-Cohort Study. Journal of Aging and Health.22, (5), 589-610.2010.
    • ID: 10.1177/0898264310366752 (DOI)
  • Soerensen, Mette, Dato, Serena, Christensen, Kaare, McGue, Matt, Stevnsner, Tinna, Bohr, Vilhelm A., Christiansen, Lene. Replication of an association of variation in the FOXO3A gene with human longevity using both case--control and longitudinal data. Aging Cell.9, (6), 1010-1017.2010.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1474-9726.2010.00627.x (DOI)
  • Thinggaard, Mikael, Jacobsen, Rune, Jeune, Bernard, Martinussen, Torben, Christensen, Kaare. Is the relationship between BMI and mortality increasingly U-shaped with advancing age? A 10-year follow-up of persons aged 70–95 years. Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences.2, (1), 8-19.2010.
  • Oksuzyan, Anna, Petersen, Inge, Stovring, Henrik, Bingley, Paul, Vaupel, James W., Christensen, Kaare. The male-female health-survival paradox: A survey and register study of the impact of sex-specific selection and information bias. Annals of Epidemiology.19, (7), 504-511.2009.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2009.03.014 (DOI)
  • Christensen, Kaare, Bathum, Lise, Christiansen, Lene. Biological indicators and genetic information in Danish twin and oldest-old surveys. Biosocial Surveys.Washington, DC: National Academies Press. 2008.
  • Christensen, Kaare, McGue, Matt, Petersen, Inge. Exceptional longevity does not result in excessive levels of disability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.105, (36), 13274-13279.2008.
    • ID: 10.1073/pnas.0804931105 (DOI)
  • Engberg, Henriette, Christensen, Kaare, Andersen-Ranberg, Karen, Jeune, Bernard. Cohort changes in cognitive function among Danish centenarians. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders.26, (2), 153-160.2008.
    • ID: 10.1159/000149819 (DOI)
  • Engberg, Henriette, Christensen, Kaare, Andersen-Ranberg, Karen, Vaupel, James W., Jeune, Bernard. Improving activities of daily living in Danish centenarians--but only in women: A comparative study of two birth cohorts born in 1895 and 1905. Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences.63A, (11), 186-1192.2008.
  • Hartvigsen, Jan, Christensen, Kaare. Pain in the back and neck are with us until the end: A nationwide interview-based survey of Danish 100-year-olds. Spine.33, (8), 909-913.2008.
    • ID: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31816b45f1 (DOI)
  • Jacobsen, P.K., Sigsgaard, T., Pedersen, O. F., Christensen, K., Miller, M.R.. Lung function as a predictor of survival in very elderly people: The Danish 1905 cohort study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.56, (11), 2150-2152.2008.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.01969.x (DOI)
  • Andersen, Frank Krarup, Christensen, Kaare, Frederiksen, Henrik. Self-rated health and age: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of 11,000 Danes aged 45-102. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health.35, 164-171.2007.
    • ID: 10.1080/14034940600975674 (DOI)
  • Bischoff, Claus, Petersen, Hans Christian, Graakjaer, Jesper, Andersen-Ranberg, Karen, Vaupel, James W., Bohr, Vilhelm A., Kølvraa, Steen, Christensen, Kaare. No association between telomere length and survival among the elderly and oldest old. Epidemiology.17, (2), 190-194.2006.
    • ID: 10.1097/01.ede.0000199436.55248.10 (DOI)
  • Fredericksen, Henrik, Hjelmborg, Jacob, Mortensen, Jakob, Mcgue, Matt, Vaupel, James W., Christensen, Kaare. Age trajectories of grip strength: Cross-sectional and longitudinal data among 8,342 Danes aged 46 to 102. Annals of Epidemiology.16, (7), 554-562.2006.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2005.10.006 (DOI)
  • Bathum, L., Christiansen, L., Tan, Q., Vaupel, J., Jeune, B., Christensen, K.. No evidence for an association between extreme longevity and Microsomal Transfer Protein polymorphisms in a longitudinal study of 1651 nonagenarians. European Journal of Human Genetics.13, (10), 1154-1158.2005.
    • ID: 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201468 (DOI)
  • Bischoff, Claus, Graakjaer, Jesper, Petersen, Hans Christian, Jeune, Bernard, Bohr, Vilhelm A., Steen, Koelvraa, Christensen, Kaare. Telomere length among the elderly and oldest-old. Twin Research and Human Genetics.8, (5), 425-432.2005.
    • ID: 10.1375/twin.8.5.425 (DOI)
  • Nybo, Hanne, Petersen, Hans C., Gaist, David, Jeune, Bernard, Andersen, Kjeld, McGue, Matt, Vaupel, James W., Christensen, Kaare. Predictors of Mortality in 2,249 Nonagenarians: The Danish 1905 Cohort Survey. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.51, (10), 1,365-1,373.2003.
    • ID: 10.1046/j.1532-5415.2003.51453.x (DOI)
  • Andersen, K., Nybo, H., Gaist, D., Petersen, H.C., McGue, M., Jeune, B., Vaupel, J.W., Christensen, K.. Cognitive impairment and mortality among nonagenarians: The Danish 1905 Cohort Survey. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders.13, (3), 156-163.2002.
    • ID: 10.1159/000048647 (DOI)
  • Frederiksen, Henrik, McGue, Matt, Jeune, Bernard, Gaist, David, Nybo, Hanne, Skytthe, Axel, Vaupel, James W., Christensen, Kaare. Do Children of Long-Lived Parents Age More Successfully?. Epidemiology.13, (3), 334-339.2002.
    • ID: 10.1097/00001648-200205000-00015 (DOI)
  • Rosholm, Jens-Ulrik, Nybo, Hanne, Ranberg, Karen Anderson, Himmelstrup, Bodil, Skjelbo, Erik, Christensen, Kaare, Gram, Lars F.. Hyponatraemia in Very Old Nonhospitalized People: Association with Drug Use. Drugs and Aging.19, (9), 685-693.2002.
    • ID: 10.2165/00002512-200219090-00005 (DOI)
  • Bathum, Lise, Christiansen, Lene, Nybo, Hanne, Ranberg, Karen Anderson, Gaist, David, Jeune, Bernard, Petersen, Niels Erik, Vaupel, James W., Christensen, Kaare. Association of Mutations in the Hemochromatosis Gene With Shorter Life Expectancy. Archives of Internal Medicine.161, (20), 2441-2444.2001.
    • ID: 10.1001/archinte.161.20.2441 (DOI)
  • Christensen, Kaare. Biological material in household surveys: The interface between epidemiology and genetics. Cells and Surveys: Should Biological Measures Be Included in Social Science Research.Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 2001.
  • Nybo, Hanne, Gaist, David, Jeune, Bernard, Bathum, Lise, McGue, Matt, Vaupel, James W., Christensen, Kaare. The Danish 1905 Cohort: A Genetic-Epidemiological Nationwide Survey. Journal of Aging and Health.13, (1), 32-46.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/089826430101300102 (DOI)
  • Nybo, Hanne, Gaist, David, Jeune, Bernard, McGue, Matt, Vaupel, James W., Christensen, Kaare. Functional Status and Self-Rated Health in 2,262 Nonagenarians: The Danish 1905 Cohort Survey. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.49, (5), 601-609.2001.
    • ID: 10.1046/j.1532-5415.2001.49121.x (DOI)

Update Metadata: 2016-08-22 | Issue Number: 1 | Registration Date: 2016-08-22

Christensen, Kaare; Duke University (2005): Danish 1905 Cohort Study, 1998. Version 3. Version: v3. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.