Job Mobilities and Family Lives in Europe (Second Wave)

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • Rüger, Heiko (Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung (BiB), Wiesbaden)
  • Kaufmann, Vincent (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)
  • Viry, Gil (University of Edinburgh)
  • Meil, Gerardo (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid)
  • Schneider, Norbert F. (Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung (BiB), Wiesbaden)
Publication Date
  • SUZ, Duisburg, Germany Metroscopia, Madrid, Spain DemoSCOPE, Carouge, Switzerland (Data collection for Switzerland and France) (Data Collector)
  • ZA:
    • Occupation, Profession
    • Family
    • Person, Personality, Role
  • CESSDA Topic Classification:
    • Working conditions
    • Employment
    • Social conditions and indicators
    • Specific diseases and medical conditions
    • Psychology
    • Family life and marriage
    • Gender and gender roles
    • Transport, travel and mobility
  • Abstract

    The study focuses on three main aspects: first, on the prevalence and variety of job-related spatial mobility in Europe, second, on the causes and circumstances of people’s mobility decisions, and third, on the consequences of job-related spatial mobility for subjective well-being, family life, occupational career and social integration. A) Identification of Job-Mobility: employment status; paid work in the past; end of last job; daily travel time to work; variation due to several jobs; one hour commute at least 12 days per month; same duration for the way home; duration of commute to get from job back home; number of commutes per week; overnighters were asked: number of job-related overnights per year; worked parts of the year away from home; at least 60 overnights away from home; recent relocators were asked: ever moved at least 50 km; number of movements; move for job-related reasons. Long-distance relationships: stable relationship; common household with partner, employment status of partner, common household if jobs would allow it, duration of travel between the two residences. Job-Mobility of the partner: daily travel time from home to work; number of commutes per week; job-related overnights in the last 12 months; number of job-related overnights per year, per month and per week; number of overnight days and weeks in a row; number of overnight trips per month; job-related move since 2004 for over 50 km. B) Origin and Place 1. Life history: age (year of birth); country of birth; year and age of move to survey-country; ever lived one year or longer outside the country; stays abroad for one year or longer; citizenship (multiple answers); same country of origin as respondent`s parents; country of origin of respondent`s father and mother (migration background); year and age of move out from parental home; first own home rent or own; distance to parental home at least 50 km; year of this relocation and up to 15 additional relocations; job-related reason for moving; relocation across national border. 2. Place of living: current place of living (NUTS); number of residences; number of places of living; own or rent own dwelling; attachment to own four walls and to the city of residence (scalometer); attachment to the region; attachment to one`s country, to the country of birth, and to Europe; distance to friends; frequency of contact with good friends, interaction in circle of friends. C) Family life 1. Partnership: year and month of beginning of the relationship; married to this person; year of marriage; first marriage; marital status; partner: year of birth; partner`s citizenship; highest educational level; employment status; more than one job; number of work hours per week; main job; fixed-term or open-ended work contract; freedom of choosing work hours; number of partnerships lasting at least one year; number of partnerships with cohabitation. 2. Children, childcare, grandchildren, household and parents: number of children; number of step, foster or adopted children, all children living in the household; year of birth of children; relationship to these children: own children, step children, adopted children, foster children; children belonging to the household; reason for not living in the household, frequency of contact with these children; respondent is currently on maternal or parental leave; paid nanny or day mother for childcare; frequency of paid care; child is attending kindergarten or a day nursery; time of returning from school (hour and minute); grandparents taking care of children and frequency of care; grandparents are not alive anymore; child care by relatives or friends and frequency of care; number of grandchildren; importance of job-related reasons for not having children; reasons for not having children; intention to have a child within the next 3 years; parents, grandparents and parents in law live within short distance (20 minutes). 3. Quality of partnership, division of labour and housework: leisure activities together with the partner; necessity of daily face-to-face contact for a good partnership; visiting friends together with the partner; partner who cares for the children and who handles housework; paid support for housework. D) Work I 1. Job biography: year of first job; number of different employers in job career; for former jobs was asked: daily long distance for commuting; part of the week and part of the year away from home; regular long business trips; long distance relocation; migration: moving to another country; highest educational level of respondent; enrolled in university or professional training. 2. Current occupational situation: working for pay: respondents on maternal leave were asked: more than one job; number of different jobs; work hours per week; one main job or two (several) equal jobs; characteristics of main job: employment or self-employment status; year of job start and age at job start; private or public sector; branch of activity; supervisor-function; supervised by other people; fixed-term or open-ended contract; contract length; number of days working at home; freedom of deciding beginning and end of work day; company has more than one location; distribution of this location (same region, national, spread over Europe, world-wide); transfer offer to a different location within the company; acceptance of the transfer. 3. Current occupational situation of respondents not working for pay: engagement; year of last job’s start. E) Job-Mobility Daily long-distance commuters: commuting is related to first or second job; distance between home and workplace; means of transportation (number and mode); start of commuting (year and month). Overnighters: travel related to first or second job; overnight days and weeks in a row; means and frequency of communication with partner; informed well ahead of time about time schedule; ability to arrange length and frequency of stay; changing worksites or same workplace; accommodation near the workplace. Shuttlers: kind of accommodation; duration of travel from main household to accommodation; means of transportation; start of overnighting (year and month). Vari-Mobiles: geographical range of trips (regional, national, European or worldwide); kind of accommodation; direct travel from one work place to the other work place; frequency of partner`s and child`s visits at the different working places; start of frequently travelling (year and month). Long-distance relationships: related to first or second job; living together with partner in one household; year and month of household separation; distance between the households; partner`s household in the same country; country of partner`s household; means and frequency of communication with the partner; who visits whom most often; number of means and means of transportation. Recent relocators: concerning the last job-related move at least 50 km away: Move related to current or former job, first or second job; ever lived in the same region before; friends or relatives in the new place before movement; importance of maintaining relationships at the previous location; simultaneous move of partner and family; direct or later move of partner at that time; direct or later move of the family; duration until the partner or the family came; rented or owned last home; last home: sold, used or rented out, last place of living before relocation (NUTS); crossed a language barrier (only in Switzerland and Belgium); emigration country; immigration country; move involved changing employers; return from assignment; assignment; initial plan to stay; still plan to stay; current plans to return; date of planned return (year and month). Circumstances of job-mobility: persons who encouraged and those who discouraged mobility decision; mobility decision was very difficult; free mobility decision; respondent would make mobility decision again; duration of mobility and number of relocations were foreseeable; current plans to reduce or stop mobility; self-evaulation of mobility and perceived evaluation of mobility by others; mobility as temporary solution or permanent way of life; evaluation of job-related mobility as opportunity, need or coercion. Consequences of job-mobility: advantages of job-related mobility (only chance for both partners or for the respondent to work, improves career opportunities, earn more money, children stay in familiar environment, keep house, stay close to friends and relatives, fun, independence, more intensive time with partner, live in a nice area, no advantages); disadvantages (time pressure, often exhausted, not feeling at home anywhere, not enough engagement in housework, less efficient at work, neglecting contacts to people, high financial costs, too little time for the partner and the children, less leisure time, difficult to build up a partnership, no disadvantages); evaluation of support by employer; company support (means of communication for private use, refunding of travel costs, of costs for overnights and moving, help with job finding for the partner or to find a kindergarten as well as school for the children, help with managing formal procedures); evaluation of potential further support for instance tax incentives or support from partner; development of good strategies to manage own mobile way of life and to integrate into the new location; evaluation of time travelling (waste of time, time to relax, time for leisure activities, tor to work). F) Work II Readiness to become job-mobile: Desire for a job; willingness to move to another region for a job or a better job, a foreign country, to long distance trips, to weekend commute, to go frequently on business trips; job refusal in the past because of mobility. G) Individual characteristics Attitudes regarding job, job-mobility and family: hard to find an equivalent job in the case of unemployment; difficulty to find a decent job; worried not to have enough business or to lose one`s job; mobility is necessary for career; employers can expect mobility; career more successful with fewer other responsibilities; gender role: men as main provider and women taking care of home and family; self-characterization: ability to manage problems, good in reading maps and finding way, association with moving (opportunities of the new place or giving up one´s current life), self-assessment as family-oriented or career-oriented; job-interruption for more than one year because of taking care for children or family members and reduction of work hours for this reasons (respondent and partner); partner’s job interruption; planned reduction currently or in the past; children and job career: fewer children than planned; children born later than planned because of the career; currently postponing having more children. Health, stress and satisfaction: self-assessment of health; mental health status: Frequency of feeling pressed for time, tired and exhausted, full of energy, depressed, well-balanced, lonesome, stressed because of too many duties, because of work situation, conflicts with partner, worries concerning children; overall stress within the last three months (scalometer); satisfaction with: the availability of public transport in the region, own financial situation, partnership, relationship to children, job situation; satisfaction with life (scalometer). Demography: sex of respondent; language skills; availability of laptop, web access, car or motorcycle, motorway, station with regional trains, station with high speed trains and airport; frequency of use of car or motorcycle; frequency of use of public transport; net household income; personel income; partner who contributes most to household income. Additionally coded was: respondent ID; country; sample; survey (source of respondent); panel weights; mobile status in wave 1 and 2 (mobile as Long-Distance Commuter, Overnighter, Recent Relocators); year of recent job-related relocation; last job-related relocation (50 km+) was cross-border relocation; in wave 1 and 2: mobile in a LDR, mobile for job-related reasons, partner: mobile for job-related reasons; mobility: typology of 8, of 7, of 10 (non) mobilities; Follow up und additional survey: typology of 6 (non) mobilities; reduced household size (number of persons aged 25-54). Additionally generated variables: weighting factors; Indicators: Job-mobility, education (ISCED), occupation (ISCO 88), job prestige (SIOPS, ISEI); current and last place of residence; region (NUTS).
Temporal Coverage
  • 2010-05-03 / 2010-07-01
    Germany (Follow-up survey)
  • 2011-12-12 / 2012-02-01
    France (Follow-up survey)
  • 2011-09-20 / 2011-12-05
    Spain (Follow-up survey)
  • 2011-10-17 / 2011-11-30
    Switzerland (Follow-up survey)
  • 2010-05-20 / 2010-07-01
    Germany (Additional survey)
  • 2012-09-25 / 2012-12-13
    France (Additional survey)
Geographic Coverage
  • Switzerland (CH)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Spain (ES)
  • France (FR)
Sampled Universe
Follow-up survey in Germany, France, Switzerland and Spain: residential population, aged 25 to 54 in 2007 with access to a landline phone Additional surveys in Germany and France, oversampling of highly mobile individuals. Target population: job-related spatially mobile residential population, aged 25 to 54 at the time of the interview with access to a landline phone Universe of the second wave is made up of all respondents of the first survey who had agreed to participate in subsequent surveys.
Sampling Procedure Comment: Probability Sample: Multistage Sample
Collection Mode
  • Telephone interview: CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interview)
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Individual
    Number of Units: 2234
    Number of Variables: 1621
A first wave was conducted in 2007 in six European countries: Germany, France, Spain, Switzerland, Poland and Belgium (ZA5065). (project website)
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA5066 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • Viry, Gil; Kaufmann, Vincent (eds.): High Mobility in Europe. Work and Personal Life. Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
  • Rüger, Heiko; Schier, Michaela; Feldhaus, Michael; Ries, Tammy (2014): Einstellungen zur Akzeptanz räumlicher Distanz in erwerbsbedingt multilokalen Lebensformen. In: Zeitschrift für Familienforschung - Journal of Family Research 26,2: 121-143
  • Meil, Gerardo and Romero-Balsas, Pedro (2015), "Transiciones de entrada y salida en la movilidad geográfica circular y bienestar subjetivo", en Revista del Ministerio de Empleo y Seguridad Social, 116, 215-232.
  • Schneider, Norbert F.; Skora, Thomas; Rüger, Heiko (2014): Beruflich bedingte Mobilitätserfahrungen im Lebensverlauf und ihre Bedeutung für die Familienentwicklung. Ein Kohortenvergleich. In: Steinbach, Anja; Hennig, Marina; Arránz Becker, Oliver (Hrsg.): Familie im Fokus der Wissenschaft. Wiesbaden: Springer VS: 173-202
  • Viry, Gil; Rüger, Heiko; Skora, Thomas (2014): Migration and Long-Distance Commuting Histories and Their Links to Career Achievement in Germany: A Sequence Analysis. In: Sociological Research Online 19,1: 8
  • Rüger, Heiko; Micheel, Katharina; Skora, Thomas; Ruppenthal, Silvia (2012): Sind berufsbedingte räumliche Mobilität und freiwilliges Engagement miteinander vereinbar? Befunde der zweiten Erhebungswelle der Studie „Job Mobilities and Family Lives in Europe“. In: Bevölkerungsforschung Aktuell 33,6: 2-9
  • Meil, Gerardo (2014), "Professional mobility in the careers of European workers and division of housework" in Rupp, Marina/Kapella, Olaf/Schneider, Norbert F. (Hrsg.) (2014): Zukunft der Familie - Anforderungen an Familienpolitik und Familienwissenschaft. Tagungsband zum 4. Europäischen Fachkongress Familienforschung. Opladen, Berlin & Toronto: Verlag Barbara Budrich.
  • Rüger, Heiko; Pfaff, Simon; Skora, Thomas; Schneider, Norbert F. (2016): Job Mobilities and Family Lives in Europe – Second Wave. Panel Data Set & Oversampling. BiB Daten- und Methodenberichte 3/2016. Wiesbaden: Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung.

Update Metadata: 2020-10-21 | Issue Number: 19 | Registration Date: 2016-10-28