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Eurobarometer 72.1 (Aug-Sep 2009)

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • Europäische Kommission
Other Title
  • Poverty and Social Exclusion, Social Services, Climate Change, and the National Economic Situation and Statistics (Subtitle)
Publication Date
  • Papacostas, Antonis (European Commission, Brussels DG Communication, Public Opinion Analysis Sector) (Researcher)
  • TNS Dimarso, Brussels, Belgium TNS BBSS, Sofia, Bulgaria TNS Aisa, Prague, Czech Republic TNS GALLUP DK, Copenhagen, Denmark TNS Infratest, Munich, Germany Emor, Tallinn, Estonia TNS ICAP, Athens, Greece TNS Demoscopia, Madrid, Spain TNS Sofres, (Data Collector)
  • ZA:
    • Economic Policy, National Economic Situation
    • Social Policy
  • CESSDA Topic Classification:
    • Social behaviour and attitudes
    • Social exclusion
    • Specific social services: use and provision
    • Environmental degradation/pollution and protection
    • Income, property and investment/saving
    • Economic conditions and indicators
    • Economic systems and development
  • Abstract

    Poverty and social exclusion, social services, climate change, and the national economic situation and statistics. Topics: 1. Poverty and social exclusion: own life satisfaction (scale); satisfaction with family life, health, job, and satisfaction with standard of living (scale); personal definition of poverty; incidence of poverty in the own country; estimated proportion of the poor in the total population; poor persons in the own residential area; estimated increase of poverty: in the residential area, in the own country, in the EU, and in the world; reasons for poverty in general; social and individual reasons for poverty; population group with the highest risk of poverty; things that are necessary to being able to afford to have a minimum acceptable standard of living (heating facility, adequate housing, a place to live with enough space and privacy, diversified meals, repairing or replacing a refrigerator or a washing machine, annual family holidays, medical care, dental care, access to banking services as well as to public transport, access to modern means of communication, to leisure and cultural activities, electricity, and running water); perceived deprivation through poverty in the own country regarding: access to decent housing, education, medical care, regular meals, bank services, modern means of communication, finding a job, starting up a business of one’s own, maintaining a network of friends and acquaintances; assessment of the financial situation of future generations and current generations compared to parent and grandparent generations; attitude towards poverty: necessity for the government to take action, too large income differences, national government should ensure the fair redistribution of wealth, higher taxes for the rich, economic growth reduces poverty automatically, poverty will always exist, income inequality is necessary for economic development; perceived tensions between population groups: rich and poor, management and workers, young and old, ethnic groups; general trust in people, in the national parliament, and the national government (scale); trust in institutions regarding poverty reduction: EU, national government, local authorities, NGOs, religious institutions, private companies, citizens; reasons for poverty in the own country: globalisation, low economic growth, pursuit of profit, global financial system, politics, immigration, inadequate national social protection system; primarily responsible body for poverty reduction; importance of the EU in the fight against poverty; prioritized policies of the national government to combat poverty; assessment of the effectiveness of public policies to reduce poverty; opinion on the amount of financial support for the poor; preference for governmental or private provision of jobs; attitude towards tuition fees; increase of taxes to support social spending; individual or governmental responsibility (welfare state) to ensure provision; attitude towards a minimum wage; optimism about the future; perceived own social exclusion; perceived difficulties to access to financial services: bank account, bank card, credit card, consumer loans, and mortgage; personal risk of over-indebtedness; attitude towards loans: interest free loans for the poor, stronger verification of borrowers by the credit institutions, easier access to start-up loans for the unemployed, free financial advice for the poor, possibility to open a basic bank account for everyone; affordable housing in the residential area; extent of homelessness in the residential area, and recent change; adequacy of the expenditures for the homeless by the national government, and the local authorities; assumed reasons for homelessness: unemployment, no affordable housing, destruction of the living space by a natural disaster, debt, illness, drug or alcohol addiction, family breakdown, loss of a close relative, mental health problems, lack of access to social services and support facilities, lack of identity papers, free choice of this life; probability to become homeless oneself; own support of homeless people: monetary donations to charities, volunteer work in a charity, help find access in emergency shelters and with job search, direct donations of clothes to homeless people, buying newspapers sold by homeless people, food donations; sufficient household income, or difficulties to make ends meet; ability to afford the heating costs, a week’s holiday once a year, and a meal with meat every second day; expected development of the financial situation of the household; assessment of the risk of potential difficulties in the next 12 months in paying: rent, mortgage, consumer loan rates, electricity bills, unexpected events, daily consumer goods; job security; difficulties in fulfilling family responsibilities because of the workload; difficulties in concentrating at work due to family commitments; necessary minimum monthly income for the own household; comparison of the monthly income of the household with the average; self-assessment on a poverty scale; utilization of social services: long-term care service, child care services, service of job centers, social housing services, social assistance; assessment of the quality and affordability of these social services; preferred way of solving problems of old people who no longer manage to live alone (elderly care): living with the children, regular visits by a child, care through nursing services, nursing home; best form of organization of childcare for children aged 0-3 and 3-6 years: preschool, home, home care by person, by both parents or only by mother / father, or other relatives; necessity of pre-school education; population groups that should be prioritized in receiving social assistance and in having access to social housing; reasonable proportion of the household income that should be spent on the care of parents and child; primary responsibility for the provision of social services: public sector at national, regional or local level, private sector, or NGOs; assessment of the quality of health services and the state pension system (scale). 2. Climate change: most important problems in the world: climate change, terrorism, poverty, disease, global economic crisis, proliferation of nuclear weapons, war, increase in world population; assessment of climate change as a serious problem (scale); sufficient action against climate change through: the national government, the EU, regional and local authorities, industry, citizens; attitude towards climate change (scale: irreversible process, problem is exaggerated, influence of carbon dioxide (Split: question appended with ´and other greenhouse gases´) on climate change is marginal, positive impact of the fight against climate change on the European economy, use of alternative fuels (Split: question appended with ´such as bio fuels´) to reduce greenhouse gases, personal action against climate change); kind of personal action taken; increase in economic growth in the EU through environmental protection, environmental protection as an obstacle to economic growth; willingness to pay more in order to use energy produced from sustainable energy sources (in percent). 3. Economy: assessment of the growth rate of the gross domestic product and the inflation rate in the own country in 2008 compared to 2007; assessment of the unemployment rate in 2008; importance of statistical information in political decision making; trust in official statistics; importance of knowing economic data; assessment of the situation on the labour market and the economic situation in the own country compared to other European countries. Demography: nationality; age; marital status; age at end of education; sex; occupation; professional position; type of community; household composition and household size; own a mobile phone and fixed (landline) phone; possession of durable goods (entertainment electronics, internet connection; financial difficulties during the last year; self-rated social position (scale); internet use (at home, at work, at school). Also encoded was: date of interview; interview; duration of interview; persons present during the interview; willingness to cooperate; city size; region; weighting factor.
Temporal Coverage
  • 2009-08-28 / 2009-09-15
  • 2009-08-28 / 2009-09-13
  • 2009-08-28 / 2009-09-15
  • 2009-08-28 / 2009-09-13
  • 2009-09-01 / 2009-09-14
  • 2009-08-29 / 2009-09-17
  • 2009-08-28 / 2009-09-14
  • 2009-08-28 / 2009-09-13
    Ireland (Republic)
  • 2009-08-31 / 2009-09-14
  • 2009-08-28 / 2009-09-16
  • 2009-08-28 / 2009-09-16
  • 2009-08-28 / 2009-09-09
  • 2009-09-01 / 2009-09-14
  • 2009-08-29 / 2009-09-16
  • 2009-08-28 / 2009-09-14
    Great Britain
  • 2009-08-31 / 2009-09-15
    Northern Ireland
  • 2009-08-28 / 2009-09-13
    Cyprus (Republic)
  • 2009-08-28 / 2009-09-11
    Czech Republic
  • 2009-08-28 / 2009-09-13
  • 2009-08-28 / 2009-09-13
  • 2009-08-28 / 2009-09-14
  • 2009-08-29 / 2009-09-13
  • 2009-08-28 / 2009-09-12
  • 2009-08-29 / 2009-09-14
  • 2009-08-29 / 2009-09-13
  • 2009-08-28 / 2009-09-14
  • 2009-08-28 / 2009-09-06
  • 2009-08-28 / 2009-09-13
Geographic Coverage
  • Belgium (BE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Greece (GR)
  • Spain (ES)
  • Finland (FI)
  • France (FR)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Austria (AT)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Sweden (SE)
  • Great Britain (GB-GBN)
  • Northern Ireland (GB-NIR)
  • Cyprus (CY)
  • Czech Republic (CZ)
  • Estonia (EE)
  • Hungary (HU)
  • Latvia (LV)
  • Lithuania (LT)
  • Malta (MT)
  • Poland (PL)
  • Slovakia (SK)
  • Slovenia (SI)
  • Bulgaria (BG)
  • Romania (RO)
Sampled Universe
Population of the respective nationalities of the European Union Member States, resident in each of the Member States and aged 15 years and over
Sampling Procedure Comment: Probability Sample: Proportionate Stratified Multistage Sample
Collection Mode
  • Face-to-face interview CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interview) was used in those countries where this technique was available
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Individual
    Number of Units: 26719
    Number of Variables: 556
The special topical module QA on "Poverty and social exclusion" includes selected questions from the "European Quality of Life Survey" (EQLS), a project of the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound).
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All metadata from GESIS DBK are available free of restriction under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. However, GESIS requests that you actively acknowledge and give attribution to all metadata sources, such as the data providers and any data aggregators, including GESIS. For further information see
Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA4975 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • doi:10.3886/ICPSR28185.v1 (Type: DOI)
  • Internationale Umfrageprogramme (Type: FDZ)
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.4232/1.10129
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.4232/1.10120
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.4232/1.4975
  • TNS Opinion & Social: Special Eurobarometer 71.1 Europeans’ attitudes towards climate change. Survey requested and coordinated by the Directorate General Press and Communication. Brussels: European Commission November 2009
  • TNS Opinion & Social: Special Eurobarometer 71.1 Poverty and Social Exclusion. Survey requested and coordinated by the Directorate General Press and Communication. Brussels: European Commission February 2010
  • Tamás Keller, Márton Medgyesi and István György Tóth: Analysing the link between measured and perceived income inequality in European countries. Research note no. 8. Brussels: European Commission Directorate-General "Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities" February 2010
  • TNS Opinion & Social: Special Eurobarometer 323 / Wave 72.1: Europeans’ knowledge of economic indicators. Survey requested and coordinated by the Directorate-General for Communication (“Research and Political Analysis” Unit). Brussels, January 2010.

Update Metadata: 2020-10-21 | Issue Number: 95 | Registration Date: 2012-02-07

Europäische Kommission (2012): Eurobarometer 72.1 (Aug-Sep 2009). Poverty and Social Exclusion, Social Services, Climate Change, and the National Economic Situation and Statistics. Version: 3.0.0. GESIS Data Archive. Dataset.