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South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1) 2011-12: Adult - All provinces

Resource Type
  • Shisana, Olive
  • Simbayi, Leickness Chisamu
  • Labadarios, Demetre
  • Rehle, Thomas Michael
  • Human Sciences Research Council
Publication Date
Embargo End Date
  • Human Sciences Research Council (Producer)
Funding Reference
  • Department for International Development, UK
  • South African Department of Health
Free Keywords
  • Abstract

    Description: The data set for dissemination contains 728 variables and 17 926 cases of respondents aged 15 years and older who participated in the SANHANES-1 Adult Questionnaire. The questionnaire covers the following sections: geographic information, biographic details of the respondent, non-communicable diseases, tuberculosis, nutrition, perceptions of respondent's general and mental health, as well as health care utilisation.

    Abstract: The South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES) was established as a continuous population health survey to address the changing health needs in the country and provide a broader and more comprehensive platform to study the health status of the nation on a regular basis. The SANHANES-1, was conducted in 2011-12 among 27 580 eligible individuals, of which 25 532 individuals completed the interview, 12 025 underwent physical examinations and 8 078 provided blood specimens for biomarker testing. This survey provides critical information to map the emerging epidemic of NCDs in South Africa among other defined priorities of the National Department of Health and analyses their social, economic, behavioural and environmental determinants. Data on the magnitude of and trends in NCDs, as well as other existing/emerging health priorities, is essential to develop national prevention and control programmes, assessing the impact of interventions, and evaluating the health status of the country. The primary objectives of the SANHANES-1 were to assess defined aspects of the health and nutritional status of South Africans with respect to the prevalence of NCDs (specifically cardiovascular disease, diabetes and hypertension) and their risk factors (diet, physical activity and tobacco use): The knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of South Africans with respect to NCDs and tuberculosis; The nutritional status of South Africans as it relates to food security, dietary intake/ behaviour including alcohol consumption, body image and weight management; The perceptions of general and mental health (stress and trauma) and the utilisation of healthcare services; The behavioural (smoking, diet, physical inactivity) and social determinants of health and nutrition (demographic, socio-economic status and locality) and relate these to the health and nutritional status of the population.

Temporal Coverage
  • 2012 / 2012
Geographic Coverage
  • South Africa (ZA)
Sampled Universe
National; The SANHANES-1 included individuals of all ages living in South Africa. All persons living in occupied households (HHs) were eligible to participate.
The survey applied a multi-stage disproportionate, stratified cluster sampling approach. A total of 1 000 census enumeration areas1 (EAs) from the 2001 population census were selected from a database of 86 000 EAs and mapped in 2007 using aerial photography to create the 2007 HSRC master sample to use as a basis for sampling of households. The selection of EAs was stratified by province and locality type. In the formal urban areas, race was also used as a third stratification variable (based on the predominant race group in the selected EA at the time of the 2001 census). The allocation of EAs to different stratification categories was disproportionate, in other words, over-sampling or over-allocation of EAs occurred in areas that were dominated by Indian, coloured or white race groups to ensure that the minimum required sample size in those smaller race groups were obtained. Based on the HSRC 2007 Master Sample, 500 EAs representative of the socio-demographic profile of South Africa were identified and a random sample of 20 visiting points (VPs) were randomly selected from each EA, yielding an overall sample of 10 000. EAs were sampled with probability proportional to the size of the EA using the 2001 census estimate of the number of VPs in the EA database as a measure of size (MOS). 1 An enumeration area (EA) is the spatial area that is used by Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) to collect census information on the South African population. An enumeration area consists of approximately 180 households in urban areas, and 80 to 120 households in rural areas. The response rate is as follows: Households: 10 000 households (VPs) sampled, 8 166 were valid, occupied households, thus 1 834 VPs were invalid or clearly abandoned VPs/households. In addition, 573 VPs were not realised for either being empty after repeated visits or other reasons. Of the 8 166 valid VPs/households, 6 305 (77.2%) were interviewed whilst 22.8% were non-response. Proportions of non-response at household level were as follows: 1 288 (15.8%) refused to take part in the survey; 573 (7.0%) were valid households but empty after repeated visits or the non-response involved other reasons. Individuals: In the 8 166 valid VPs/households that agreed to participate in the survey,18 201 individuals aged 15 years and older were eligible to be interviewed. A total of 16 780 individuals (93.1%) completed the interview. The 16 780 individuals aged 15 years and older who agreed to be interviewed were further invited to participate in the physical and clinical examination conducted in the clinic. Of those who were eligible, 44.1% and 29.7% consented to physical examination and blood testing, respectively.
Time Dimension
  • Cross-section
    Cross-section, This first round of the SANHANES (SANHANES-1) was a cross-sectional survey providing baseline data for future longitudinal analysis. The study also combined longitudinal as well as cross-sectional design elements. A prospective cohort approach will address the relationships between medical, nutritional and behavioural/societal risk factors assessed in the first survey phase and subsequent morbidity, mortality and changes in risk factors at the national level.
Collection Mode
  • Clinical measurements
  • Face-to-face interview
  • Physical measurements
  • Psychological measurements
By accessing the data, you give assurance that The data and documentation will not be duplicated, redistributed or sold without prior approval from the rights holder. The data will be used for scientific research or educational purposes only. The data will only be used for the specified purpose. If it is used for another purpose the additional purpose will be registered. Redundant data files will be destroyed. The confidentiality of individuals/organisations in the data will be preserved at all times. No attempt will be made to obtain or derive information from the data to identify individuals/organisations. The HSRC will be acknowledged in all published and unpublished works based on the data according to the provided citation. The HSRC will be informed of any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports or other publications resulting from work based in whole or in part on the data and documentation. For archiving and bibliographic purposes an electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to the HSRC. To offer for deposit into the HSRC Data Collection any new data sets which have been derived from or which have been created by the combination of the data supplied with other data. The data team bears no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses. Failure to comply with the End User License may result in sanctions being imposed.

Update Metadata: 2019-09-19 | Issue Number: 638 | Registration Date: 2017-10-05

Shisana, Olive; Simbayi, Leickness Chisamu; Labadarios, Demetre; Rehle, Thomas Michael; Human Sciences Research Council (2017): South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1) 2011-12: Adult - All provinces. Version: 1.0. HSRC - Human Science Research Council SA. Dataset.