Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth, 1976 [Restricted-Use]

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Miech, Richard A.
  • Johnston, Lloyd D.
  • Bachman, Jerald G.
  • O'Malley, Patrick M.
  • Schulenberg, John E.
  • Patrick, Megan E.
Other Title
  • MTF 1976 (12th Grade) [Restricted-Use] (Alternative Title)
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Monitoring the Future (MTF) Restricted-Use Cross-Sectional Datasets
Publication Date
Publication Place
Ann Arbor, Michigan
  • Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse
Free Keywords
Schema: ICPSR
alcohol; attitudes; crime; demographic characteristics; drug education; drug use; e-cigarettes; educational objectives; family background; gender roles; high school students; human behavior; lifestyles; prescription drugs; religious attitudes; self esteem; social change; tobacco use; values; youths
  • Abstract

    This data collection is part of the Monitoring the Future series that explores changes in important values, behaviors, and lifestyle orientations of contemporary American youth in eighth, tenth, and twelfth grades. The collection provides two datasets for each year since 1976 that are accessible only through the ICPSR Virtual Data Enclave VDE) and include original variables, including the unaltered weight variable, that in the public-use data were altered or omitted: one dataset without State, County, and Zip Code and one dataset including State, County, and Zip Code. Use of the geographic identifiers such as state, county, or zip code is limited and researchers interested in these variables are encouraged to read FAQs: About MTF Restricted-Use Geographic and Other Variables. Also included as part of each annual collection is a zip archive of the Monitoring the Future public-use data and documentation for each respective year. The basic research design used by the Monitoring the Future study involves annual data collections from eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders throughout the coterminous United States during the spring of each year. The 8th/10th grade surveys used four different questionnaire forms (and only two forms from 1991-1996) rather than the six used with seniors. Identical forms are used for both eighth and tenth grades, and for the most part, questionnaire content is drawn from the twelfth-grade questionnaires. Thus, key demographic variables and measures of drug use and related attitudes and beliefs are generally identical for all three grades. However, many fewer questions about lifestyles and values are included in the 8th/10th grade forms. Drugs covered by this survey include tobacco, smokeless tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, hashish, prescription medications, over-the-counter medications, inhalants, steroids, LSD, hallucinogens, amphetamines (stimulants), Ritalin (methylphenidate), Quaaludes (methaqualone), barbiturates (tranquilizers), cocaine, crack cocaine, ecstasy, methamphetamine, heroin, and GHB (gamma hydroxy butyrate). Other topics include attitudes toward religion, changing roles for women, educational aspirations, self-esteem, exposure to drug education, and violence and crime (both in and out of school).
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Created variable labels and/or value labels.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Response Rates: See Appendix B in the codebook for information about response rates.
  • Abstract


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Restricted-Use Variables Without State, County, and Zip Code (VDE Only)
    • DS2: Restricted-Use Variables Including State, County, and Zip Code (VDE Only)
    • DS3: Copy of Public-Use Files
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1976
  • Collection date: 1976
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Twelfth grade students in the contiguous United States. Smallest Geographic Unit: Zip code
A multistage area probability sample design was used involving three selection stages: (1) geographic areas or primary sampling units (PSUs), (2) schools (or linked groups of schools) within PSUs, and (3) students within sampled schools. For more information, see the Sampling Information in the codebook introduction and Sample Size and Student Response Rates in Appendix B.
Collection Mode
  • on-site questionnaire
2019-08-19 Additional height and weight variables were added to Dataset 1 and Dataset 2. The county variable was also added to Dataset 2. Funding institution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse (DA001411).
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 36903 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR36903.v2

Update Metadata: 2019-08-19 | Issue Number: 4 | Registration Date: 2017-12-21