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Head Start Impact Study (HSIS), 2002-2008 with Center Analysis File [United States]

Version
v0
Resource Type
Dataset : aggregate data, observational data, survey data
Creator
  • Puma, Michael
  • Bell, Stephen
  • Cook, Ronna
  • Heid, Camilla A.
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation
Other Title
  • Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) (Alternative Title)
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
2018-02-08
Publication Place
Ann Arbor, Michigan
Publisher
  • Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation
Language
English
Free Keywords
Schema: ICPSR
child development; child health; cognitive functioning; early childhood education; emotional development; families; Head Start; low income groups; parent child relationship; program evaluation; school readiness
Description
  • Abstract

    Since its beginning in 1965 as a part of the War on Poverty, Head Start's goal has been to boost the school readiness of low income children. Based on a "whole child" model, the program provides comprehensive services that include preschool education; medical, dental, and mental health care; nutrition services; and efforts to help parents foster their child's development. Head Start services are designed to be responsive to each child's and family's ethnic, cultural, and linguistic heritage. In the 1998 reauthorization of Head Start, Congress mandated that the United States Department of Health and Human Services determine, on a national level, the impact of Head Start on the children it serves. This legislative mandate required that the impact study address two main research questions: What difference does Head Start make to key outcomes of development and learning (and in particular, the multiple domains of school readiness) for low-income children? What difference does Head Start make to parental practices that contribute to children's school readiness? ; Under what circumstances does Head Start achieve the greatest impact? What works for which children? What Head Start services are most related to impact? ; The Head Start Impact Study addresses these questions by reporting on the impacts of Head Start on children and families during the children's preschool, kindergarten, and first grade years. It was conducted with a nationally representative sample of nearly 5,000 three- and four-year old preschool children across 84 nationally representative grantee/delegate agencies in communities where there are more eligible children and families than can be served by the program. The children participating were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (which had access to Head Start services) or a comparison group (which did not have access to Head Start services, but could receive other community resources). Data collection began in the fall of 2002 and ended in spring 2006, following children through the spring of their first grade year. Baseline data were collected through parent interviews and child assessments in fall 2002. The annual spring data collection included child assessments, parent interviews, teacher surveys, and teacher-child ratings. In addition, during the preschool years only, data collection included classroom and family day care observations, center director interviews, care provider interviews, and care provider-child ratings. The study examined differences in outcomes in several domains related to school readiness: children's cognitive, social-emotional, health, and parenting outcomes (e.g., reading to the child, use of spanking and time out, exposing children to cultural enrichment activities, safety practices, parent-child relationships). It also examined whether impacts differed based on characteristics of the children and their families, including the child's pre-academic skills at the beginning of the study; the child's primary language; whether the child has special needs; the mother's race/ethnicity; the primary caregiver's level of depressive symptoms; household risk; and urban or rural location. The Head Start Impact Study differs from other evaluations of early childhood programs in that it: represents children from the majority of Head Start programs,; represents a scaled-up federal program,; represents the full range of quality within the national program,; employs a randomized control design, the strongest design for testing impacts,; examines all domains of children's school readiness, as well as parenting outcomes,; follows children through their early years of elementary school, and; compares children who have access to Head Start to a control group that includes many children in center-based and other forms of early childhood education programs.; The Third Grade Follow-up to the Head Start Impact Study builds upon the existing randomized control design in the Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) in order to determine the longer-term impact of the Head Start program on the well-being of children and families through the end of third grade. The data collection for the Third Grade Follow-up to the Head Start Impact Study was conducted during the spring of the children's third grade year (2007 and 2008). In addition to the child assessments, parent interviews, teacher surveys, and teacher-child-ratings used for the Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) data collection, a principal survey was added to collect school data, including school demographics, and characteristics and quality indicators for schools, teachers and classrooms. As part of the third grade child assessment, self-reported data also was collected on the child's perception of his/her academic and social skills. Both studies, for different grade levels, examined differences in outcomes in several domains related to school readiness: children's cognitive, social-emotional, health, and parenting outcomes (e.g., use of spanking, exposing children to cultural enrichment activities, and parenting styles). It also examined whether impacts differed based on characteristics of the children and their families, including the child's pre-academic skills at the beginning of the study; the child's primary language; whether the child has special needs; the mother's race/ethnicity; the primary caregiver's level of depressive symptoms; household risk; and urban or rural location. This collection also includes the Center Analysis file, which contains data from a variety of publicly available data sources and provides information about the HSIS centers' communities, including population and household characteristics, crime statistics, labor, and housing data. The Center Analysis file is a new file for the collection to be accessed only through the VDE.
  • Abstract

    The primary purpose of the Head Start Impact Study is to determine whether Head Start has impacts on participating children and their parents and whether any impacts vary among different types of children and families. Impact is measured as a difference between the outcomes observed for Head Start participants and what would have been observed for these same individuals had they not participated in Head Start. The Third Grade Follow-up was conducted in order to determine the longer-term impact of the Head Start program on the well-being of children and families through the end of third grade.
  • Methods

    The study was designed to separately examine two cohorts of children, newly entering three- and four-year-olds. This design reflects the hypothesis that different program impacts may be associated with different age of entry into Head Start. Differential impacts were of particular interest in light of a trend of increased enrollment of the three-year-olds in some grantee/delegate agencies presumably due to the growing availability of preschool options for four-year-olds. Consequently, the study included two separate samples: a newly entering three-year-old group (to be studied through two years of Head Start participation i.e., Head Start year and age four year, kindergarten and first grade), and a newly entering four-year-old group (to be studied through one year of Head Start participation, kindergarten and first grade). Baseline data was collected through parent interviews and child assessments in Fall 2002. Data collection included annual spring child assessments, parent interviews, teacher surveys, and teacher-child ratings. In addition, during the preschool years only, data collection included classroom/family day care observations, center director interviews, care provider interviews, and care provider-child ratings. Finally, data collection also included administrative data regarding the centers conducting the Head Start program which were included in the study. Third Grade Follow-up data was collected through parent interviews and child assessments in the spring of 2007 and spring of 2008. Data collection included child assessments, parent interviews, teacher surveys, and teacher-child ratings (similar to the original HSIS study). In addition, school principal survey data was collected. Outcome measures were developed in four domains: child cognitive development, child social-emotional development, health, and parenting practices. The Center Analysis file was created to provide information about the HSIS centers' communities. This file included data sourced from a number of public data sources, and covers population and household characteristics, crime statistics, labor, and housing data.
  • Methods

    The measures used in this study fall into three categories: (1) child and family demographics and other characteristics collected at baseline that were used as covariates in the impact analyses and also used to form child and family subgroups, (2) child and family outcomes measures (i.e. the variables on which program impacts were estimated), and (3) characteristics of the preschool and early elementary school experiences of the participating children. Public data sources were also used to gather information regarding the HSIS centers and their surrounding communities.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Presence of Common Scales: All assessments and other outcome measures are described in the HSIS Final Report.
  • Methods

    Response Rates: Response rates for each instrument by data collection period, cohort (three- or four-year old cohort), and status (treatment or control group) are provided in the User Guide.
  • Abstract

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Covariates and Subgroup Variables Data
    • DS2: Fall 2002 Child Assessment Data
    • DS3: Fall 2002 Parent Interview Data
    • DS4: Spring 2003 Child Assessment Data
    • DS5: Spring 2003 Child Experiences Data
    • DS6: Spring 2003 Parent Interview Data
    • DS7: Spring 2003 Teacher Survey Data
    • DS8: Spring 2003 Teacher's Child Report Data
    • DS9: Spring 2003 Center Director Interview Data
    • DS10: Spring 2003 Classroom Observation Data
    • DS11: Spring 2003 Care Provider Interview Data
    • DS12: Spring 2003 Family Child Care Observation Data
    • DS13: Spring 2004 Child Assessment Data
    • DS14: Spring 2004 Child Experiences Data
    • DS15: Spring 2004 Parent Interview Data
    • DS16: Spring 2004 Teacher Survey Data
    • DS17: Spring 2004 Teacher's Child Report Data
    • DS18: Spring 2004 Center Director Interview Data
    • DS19: Spring 2004 Classroom Observation Data
    • DS20: Spring 2004 Care Provider Interview Data
    • DS21: Spring 2004 Family Child Care Observation Data
    • DS22: Spring 2005 Child Assessment Data
    • DS23: Spring 2005 Parent Interview Data
    • DS24: Spring 2005 Teacher Survey Data
    • DS25: Spring 2005 Teacher's Child Report Data
    • DS26: Spring 2006 Child Assessment Data
    • DS27: Spring 2006 Parent Interview Data
    • DS28: Spring 2006 Teacher Survey Data
    • DS29: Spring 2006 Teacher's Child Report Data
    • DS30: Weights
    • DS31: Jackknife Factors
    • DS32: Center Analysis File
    • DS33: Third Grade Follow-up Covariates and Subgroup Variables Data
    • DS34: Third Grade Follow-up Child Assessment Data
    • DS35: Third Grade Follow-up Parent Interview Data
    • DS36: Third Grade Follow-up Teacher Survey Data
    • DS37: Third Grade Follow-up Teacher's Child Report Data
    • DS38: Third Grade Follow-up Principal Interview Data
    • DS39: Third Grade Follow-up Weights
    • DS40: Third Grade Follow-up Jackknife Factors
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 2000--2008
  • 2000 / 2008
  • Collection date: 2000--2002
  • 2000 / 2002
  • Collection date: 2002--2006
  • 2002 / 2006
  • Collection date: 2007--2008
  • 2007 / 2008
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
All newly entering three- and four-year-olds in all Head Start programs operating in 2002-2003, except those serving only special populations (i.e., programs serving primarily migrant or seasonal farmworkers and their families, American Indian or Alaskan Native tribal populations, or Early Head Start children), very new programs, or programs in communities that did not have more children eligible for Head Start than could be served with the existing number of funded slots.
Sampling
The Head Start Impact Study is based on a nationally representative sample of both Head Start programs and children. First time applicants to Head Start in fall 2002 were randomly selected from a nationally representative sample of Head Start programs. The study used a multi-stage sampling process to select a representative group of Head Start programs. The children were randomly assigned to the Head Start group or the control group. For a detailed sampling description, users should refer to the Head Start Impact Study Final Report.
Collection Mode
  • audio computer-assisted self interview (ACASI)
  • computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI)
  • coded on-site observation
  • cognitive assessment test
  • face-to-face interview
  • mail questionnaire
  • paper and pencil interview (PAPI)
  • on-site questionnaire
Note
2018-04-03 Public release of DDI files for variable searchability.2018-02-12 Updating the release level. Funding institution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (282-00-0022).
Availability
On-site
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 36968 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR36968.v1
Publications
  • Akmon, Dharma, Broene, Pam, Ciarico, Janet, Madden, Kristin. Working with the Head Start Impact Study Center Analysis File. Part 2 of 2.Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. 2017.
    • ID: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Atm3P6t-I-w&feature=youtu.be (URL)
  • Akmon, Dharma, Ciarico, Janet. Head Start Impact Study Center Analysis File Overview. Part 1 of 2.Webinar, Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. 2017.
    • ID: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MwlER4NhoG0 (URL)
  • Ciarico, Janet, Broene, Pam, Madden, Kristin. Understanding and Using the Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) Center Analysis File: Part 2: Working with the Head Start Impact Study Center Analysis File [PowerPoint]. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research, Webinar notes. 2017.
  • Ciarico, Janet, Madden, Kristin. Understanding and using the Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) Center Analysis File: Part 1: Head Start Impact Study Center Analysis File overview [PowerPoint]. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research, Webinar notes. 2017.

Update Metadata: 2019-09-04 | Issue Number: 7 | Registration Date: 2018-02-08

Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla A.; United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (2018): Head Start Impact Study (HSIS), 2002-2008 with Center Analysis File [United States]. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR36968