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National Estimates of Police Use of Force

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Garner, Joel (Portland State University)
  • Hickman, Matthew (Seattle University)
  • Malega, Ron (Missouri State University)
  • Maxwell, Christopher (Michigan State University. College of Social Science)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • None
Free Keywords
Police Use of Force; Police Use of Deadly Force; LEMAS 2012
  • Abstract

    This project uses data on police use of force reported in the 2012 LEMAS Survey and, in combination with arrest data from the FBI Uniform Crime Reporting Program, produces a national estimates of the amount of force used by the state, county, and local general purpose law enforcement agencies during in 2012.
  • Weighting

    See documentation in codebook for ICPSR Study 36164

    Base Sampling Weight for Each Stratum
    Non-Response Adjustment for Stratum
    Final Weight for Each Stratum

  • Technical Information

    Response Rates: The 2012 LEMAS survey had an 86% response rate.
Temporal Coverage
  • 2012-01-01 / 2012-12-31
    Time Period: Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2012--Mon Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 2012 (2012)
Geographic Coverage
  • National
Sampled Universe
Smallest Geographic Unit: Varied
Local police departments and sheriffs’ offices are chosen for the LEMAS Survey using a stratified sample design based on number of
sworn personnel. The original 2013 LEMAS sample included 3,336 state and local law enforcement agencies. It was designed to be
representative of all general purpose state and local law enforcement agencies in the United States, with separate samples drawn of
local police departments and sheriffs’ offices. All 50 primary state law enforcement agencies (state police and highway patrol) were
included. Agencies serving special jurisdictions (such as schools, airports, or parks), or with special enforcement responsibilities (such
as conservation laws or alcohol laws), were considered out of scope for the survey.

See ICPSR Study 36164 Codebook for additional details.

BJS has not provided a list of agencies sampled but which did not respond to this survey.

Collection Mode
  • web-based survey~~


Update Metadata: 2018-02-18 | Issue Number: 1 | Registration Date: 2018-02-18

Garner, Joel; Hickman, Matthew; Malega, Ron; Maxwell, Christopher (2017): National Estimates of Police Use of Force. Version: 1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.