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Carolina Abecedarian Project and the Carolina Approach to Responsive Education (CARE), United States, 1972-1992

Version
v2
Resource Type
Dataset : administrative records data, survey data
Creator
  • Ramey, Craig T.
  • Gallagher, James J. (James John)
  • Campbell, Frances
  • Wasik, Barbara Hanna
  • Sparling, Joseph
Other Title
  • Version 2 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
2004-12-08
Publication Place
Ann Arbor, Michigan
Publisher
  • Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
  • Carolina Institute for Research on the Early Education of the Handicapped
  • United States Department of Education
Language
English
Free Keywords
Schema: ICPSR
academic achievement; child care; child development; childhood; cognitive functioning; early childhood education; educational programs; infants; intervention; poverty; preschool children; school readiness; socioeconomic status; young adults; youths at risk
Description
  • Abstract

    The Carolina Abecedarian (ABC) Project and the Carolina Approach to Responsive Education (CARE) projects consist of two consecutive longitudinal studies on the effectiveness of early childhood educational intervention for children at high risk for developmental delays and school failure. Combined, the two studies test the hypothesis that child care, home visit, and home school resource interventions can enhance cognitive and academic outcomes for children at risk for school failure due to factors such as poverty, low maternal IQ, or low parental education. These studies provide the only experimental data regarding the efficacy of child care interventions that began during early infancy and lasted until the child entered kindergarten. In addition, the data allow for tests of the efficacy of intervention during the primary grades. Research hypotheses include: Within this high-risk sample, early cumulative risk will be negatively associated with young adult educational outcomes, employment outcomes, avoidance of teen parenthood, and avoidance of criminal behavior.; Early intervention will moderate the effects of risk such that the effects of increased risk would be weaker for those who received the intervention than for those who did not.; The early home environment would mediate any found effects for early risk and that early educational intervention would moderate the effects of the early home environment such that the effects of a poor-quality home environment would be weaker for those who received treatment compared to those who did not.; Demographic variables included in this collection: gender, age, level of education.
  • Abstract

    The Carolina Abecedarian (ABC) Project and the Carolina Approach to Responsive Education (CARE) projects consist of two consecutive longitudinal studies on the effectiveness of early childhood educational intervention for children at high risk for developmental delays and school failure. Combined, the two studies test the hypothesis that child care, home visit, and home school resource interventions can enhance cognitive and academic outcomes for children at risk for school failure due to factors such as poverty, low maternal IQ, or low parental education. These studies provide the only experimental data regarding the efficacy of child care interventions that began during early infancy and lasted until the child entered kindergarten. In addition, the data allow for tests of the efficacy of intervention during the primary grades.
  • Methods

    The Abecedarian Project is a prospective randomized trial with participants from low-income families either participating in the planned "treatment" groups or serving as untreated controls. Essentially, three educational treatments were provided: educational child care from six weeks to school entry, home visit from six weeks to school entry, and home school resource services during the child's first three years of school. They varied in terms of intensity and orientation. The child care treatment was essentially child-centered and offered the most intensive exposure to education. It involved the child receiving child care at the child development center from infancy until entry to kindergarten. The home visit and home school treatments were less intensive and were family-oriented, emphasizing the role of the parent as a change agent in the child's development. All have been followed from birth to young adulthood. The study recruited children born between 1972 and 1977. At entry to school, half of the children within each of the two randomized preschool groups were randomly assigned to receive a home school resource teacher program during the first three years of elementary school. Children recruited for Project CARE (Carolina Approach to Responsive Education), however, were born between 1978 and 1980 and randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: child care plus home visits, home visits only, or control. All Project CARE children assigned to either the child care plus home visit or home visit only groups also received the home school resource teacher treatment during the first three years of elementary school. Participants were tested based on four different measurement scales: Maternal measures, quality of the family environment, cognitive assessment, and academic achievement. The cognitive assessments included: The Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months,; The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale at 24, 36, and 48 months,; The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities at 30, 42, and 54 months,; The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence at 60 months, and; The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) at 6.5, 8, 12, and 15 years.; Some of the tests were administered in only one study for a particular age. Included was the Mental Development Index (MDI) at 3 and 9 months and WISC-R at 15 years (Abecedarian only). Some achievement tests such as the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) were administered in the fall and spring of the first two years of public school (kindergarten and first grade if the child was at grade level both years) for the Abecedarian Project. The Woodcock-Johnson was administered in the fall and spring of the Abecedarian child's third year of school, in the summer following their seventh and tenth years of school, in the fall and spring of the Project Care child's first three years of school, and in the summer following their seventh year of school.
  • Methods

    Variables in the collection are related to the measurements and assessments taken by participants. The maternal measure includes variables such as marital status, maternal and paternal age, education, and family socioeconomic status. Some variables were extracted from school records for respondents. The majority of variables relate to respondent scores on various individually-administered cognitive and academic achievement assessments (see Study Design).
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Presence of Common Scales: Scales utilized in this collection include: The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI); Inventory of the Home Stimulation; Bayley Scales of Infant Development; McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities; Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R); Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS); Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT); Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-educational Battery;
  • Methods

    Response Rates: Year 3 response rate: 85% Year 7 response rate: 92% Year 10 response rate: 94%
  • Abstract

    Datasets:

    • DS1: Carolina Abecedarian Project and the Carolina Approach to Responsive Education (CARE), United States, 1972-1992
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1972--1992
  • 1972 / 1992
  • Collection date: 1972--1992
  • 1972 / 1992
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Children at risk for school failure due to factors such as having a teenage mother, parents with less than a high school education, and families with very low incomes who lived in or around a small city in the Southeast United States. Smallest Geographic Unit: None
Sampling
In the Abecedarian study, 109 of 122 participants agreed to their random assignment and enrolled a child. In one family with twins, one sibling was admitted, giving 111 children in the base sample. In the CARE sample, 64 of 65 eligible families agreed to their random assignments. The sample included two sets of twins giving a base sample of 66 children born to 64 families. The combined original base sample thus consisted of 177 children born to 173 families. Subsequently, one Project CARE child died and was replaced with no data added to the database. The archived data file thus contains 176 subjects, 111 from ABC and 65 from CARE.
Collection Mode
  • record abstracts
  • coded on-site observation
  • on-site questionnaire
Note
2018-07-18 Collection was updated to add online analysis capabilities and to create the full suite of statistical packages for this collection. The study title was updated to include geographic unit, thus document covers were updated as well. An ICPSR Codebook was added to supplement study documentation. Minor edits were made to the metadata. Funding institution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Carolina Institute for Research on the Early Education of the Handicapped. United States Department of Education.
Availability
Download
This study is freely available to the general public via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 4091 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR04091.v1
Publications
  • Garcia, Jorge L., Heckman, James, J., Ziff, Anna. Gender Differences in the Benefits of an Influential Early Childhood Program. IZA DP No. 10758.Bonn, Germany: Institute of Labor Economics. 2017.
    • ID: http://ftp.iza.org/dp10758.pdf (URL)
  • Garcia, Jorge L., Heckman, James, J., Ziff, Anna. Gender Differences in the Benefits of an Influential Early Childhood Program: Data Appendix [supplementary materials]. NBER Working Paper No. 23412.Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2017.
    • ID: 10.3386/w23412 (DOI)
  • Garcia, Jorge Luis, Heckman, James, J., Leaf, Duncan E., Prados, Maria J.. Quantifying the life-cycle benefits of a prototypical early childhood program. IZA DP No. 10811.Bonn, Germany: Institute of Labor Economics. 2017.
    • ID: http://ftp.iza.org/dp10811.pdf (URL)
  • Heckman, James J.. The Life-cycle Benefits of an Influential Early Childhood Program. NBER Working Paper No. 22993.Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2017.
    • ID: https://www.nber.org/papers/w22993.pdf (URL)
  • McCoy, Dana C., Duncan, Greg J., Koepp, Andrew, Magnuson, Katherine A., Schindler, Holly S., Shonkoff, Jack P., Yang, Rui, Yoshikawa, Hirokazu, Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.. Impacts of early childhood education on medium- and long-term educational outcomes. Educational Researcher.46, (8), 474-487.2017.
    • ID: 10.3102/0013189X17737739 (DOI)
  • Garcia, Jorge L., Heckman, James J., Leaf, Duncan E., Prados, Maria J.. The Life-cycle Benefits of an Influential Early Childhood Program. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 22993.Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2016.
    • ID: 10.3386/w22993 (DOI)
  • Marshall, Beth. High Scope today: Pedagogy for learning and development. International Perspectives on Early Childhood Education and Care.Berkshire, England: Open University Press. 2013.
  • Muennig, Peter, Robertson, Dylan, Johnson, Gretchen, Campbell, Frances, Pungello, Elizabeth P., Neidell, Matthew. The effect of an early education program on adult health: The Carolina Abecedarian Project randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Public Health.101, (3), 512-516.2011.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2010.200063 (DOI)
  • Romero, Mariajose. Guide to Datasets for Research and Policymaking in Child Care and Early Education. Child Care & Early Education Research Connections, User guide. 2009.
  • Reynolds, Arthur J., Temple, Judy A.. Cost-effective early childhood development programs from preschool to third grade. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology.4, (1), 109-139.2008.
    • ID: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091411 (DOI)
  • Eduardo López, López. Educación Compensatoria. Aprendizaje temprano, éxito posterior (II: Carolina Abecedarian Project) . [Compensatory education. Early learning, later success (II: Carolina Abecedarian Project)]. Revista Electronica de Investigacion y EValuacion Educativa.13, (1), 13-41.2007.
  • Temple, Judy A., Reynolds, Arthur J.. Benefits and costs of investments in preschool education: Evidence from the child-parent centers and related programs. Economics of Education Review.26, (1), 126-144.2007.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.econedurev.2005.11.004 (DOI)
  • Knudsen, Eric I., Heckman, James J., Cameron, Judy L., Shonkoff, Jack P.. Economic, neurobiological, and behavioral perspectives on building America's future workforce. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.103, (27), 10155-10162.2006.
    • ID: 10.1073/pnas.0600888103 (DOI)
  • Betty Joyce, Nash. MINDS Matter. Region Focus.9, (4), 122005.
  • Karoly, Lynn A., Kilburn M. Rebecca, Cannon, Jill S.. Early Childhood Interventions: Proven Results, Future Promise. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. 2005.
    • ID: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2005/RAND_MG341.pdf (URL)
  • (author unknown). Report on What Works in Early Childhood Education. Charleston, WV : West Virginia Kids Count Fund. 2002.
  • Campbell, Frances A., Ramey, Craig T., Pungello, Elizabeth P.. Early childhood education: Young adult outcomes from the Abecedarian Project. Applied Developmental Science.6, (1), 42-57.2002.
    • ID: 10.1207/S1532480XADS0601_05 (DOI)
  • Frances, A. Campbell, Elisabeth, P. Pungello, Shari, Miller-Johnson. The development of perceived scholastic competence and global self-worth in African American adolescents from low-income families: The roles of family factors, early educational intervention, and academic experience. Journal of Adolescent Research.17, (3), 277-302.2002.
    • ID: 10.1177/0743558402173004 (DOI)
  • Masse, Leonard N., Barnett, W. Steven. A Benefit Cost Analysis of the Abecedarian Early Childhood Intervention. New Brunswick, NJ: National Institute for Early Education Research. 2002.
    • ID: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2/content_storage_01/0000000b/80/23/28/3d.pdf (URL)
  • Schweinhart, Lawrence J.. Evidencia reciente sobre programas preescolares (Recent Evidence on Preschool Programs). ERIC Digests.ED470215 2002-10-00, Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Children's Research Center, ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. 2002.
    • ID: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2/content_storage_01/0000000b/80/2a/37/c4.pdf (URL)
  • Schweinhart, Lawrence J.. Recent Evidence on Preschool Programs. ERIC Digests.EDO-PS-01-9, Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Children's Research Center, ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. 2002.
    • ID: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2/content_storage_01/0000000b/80/2a/34/08.pdf (URL)
  • Campbell, Frances A., Pungello, Elizabeth P., Miller-Johnson, Shari. Effects of Early Environmental Risk Within a High Risk Sample: The Abecedarian Study. Society for Research in Child Development.Minneapolis, MN. 2001.
  • Campbell, Frances A., Pungello, Elizabeth P., Miller-Johnson, Shari, Burchinal, Margaret, Ramey, Craig T.. The Development of Cognitive and Academic Abilities: Growth Curves From an Early Childhood Educational Experiment. Developmental Psychology.37, (2), 231-242.2001.
    • ID: 10.1037/0012-1649.37.2.231 (DOI)
  • Denton, David R.. Improving Children's Readiness for School: Preschool Programs Make a Difference, but Quality Counts!. Atlanta, GA : Southern Regional Education Board. 2001.
  • Moore, J.A., Pungello, Elizabeth P.. Self, Parent, and Teacher Perceptions of Cognitive Ability in African American Academic Underachievers from Low Income Families. Society for Research in Child Development, Poster Session.Minneapolis, MN. 2001.
  • Campbell, Frances A., Pungello, Elizabeth P.. Differential Effects of Early Risk and Early Intervention on Reading and Math Achievement. Fifth Annual Head Start Research Conference, Poster Session.Washington, DC. 2000.
  • Campbell, Frances A., Pungello, Elizabeth P.. High Quality Child Care Has Long-Term Educational Benefits for Poor Children. Fifth Annual Head Start Research Conference, 'Contextual Effects and Developmental Competencies in African American Children and Young Adults' Session.Washington, DC. 2000.
  • Peart, N., Pungello, Elizabeth P., Campbell, Frances A.. A father of their own: The value of presence. Fifth Annual Head Start Research Conference, Poster Session.Washington, DC. 2000.
  • Pungello, Elizabeth P., Campbell, Frances A.. Early Learning, Later Success: The Abecedarian Study. Smart Start Evaluation Conference.Chapel Hill, NC. 2000.
  • Pungello, Elizabeth P., Campbell, Frances A.. The Abecedarian Study. Region III Child Care Meeting, General Session and Small Group Discussion.Philadelphia, PA. 2000.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Campbell, Frances A., Burchinal, Margaret, Skinner, Martie L., Gardner, David M., Ramey, Sharon L.. Persistent effects of early childhood education on high-risk children and their mothers. Applied Developmental Science.4, (1), 2-14.2000.
    • ID: 10.1207/S1532480XADS0401_1 (DOI)
  • Sparling, Joseph J., Lewis, Isabelle. Learningames: The Abecedarian Curriculum. Tallahassee, FL: Early Learning. 2000.
  • Bryant, D.M., Maxwell, K.L.. The environment and mental retardation. International Review of Psychiatry.11, (1), 56-68.1999.
    • ID: 10.1080/09540269974528 (DOI)
  • Campbell, Frances A., Pungello, Elizabeth P.. Long-Term Benefits of Early Education in a Childcare Setting. American Psychological Association 107th Annual Convention.Boston, MA. 1999.
  • Campbell, Frances A., Pungello, Elizabeth P.. Long-Term Benefits of the Abecedarian Study: Effects on Cognitive Development. Cognitive Development Society Meeting, Poster Session.Chapel Hill, NC. 1999.
  • Peart, Norman A., Campbell, Frances A.. At-Risk Students' Perceptions of Teacher Effectiveness. Journal for a Just and Caring Education.5, (3), 269-284.1999.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Campbell, Frances A., Ramey, Sharon L.. Early intervention: Successful pathways to improving intellectual development. Developmental Neuropsychology.16, (3), 385-392.1999.
    • ID: 10.1207/S15326942DN1603_22 (DOI)
  • Campbell, Frances A., et al. Early childhood programs and success in school. Early Care and Education for Children in Poverty: Promises, Programs, and Long-Term Results.Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. 1998.
  • Clarke, Stevens H., Campbell, Frances A.. Can intervention early prevent crime later? The Abecedarian Project compared with other programs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly.13, (2), 319-343.1998.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0885-2006(99)80042-8 (DOI)
  • Karoly, Lynn, A., Greenwood, Peter W., Everingham, Susan S., Hoube, Jill, Kilburn, M. Rebecca, Rydell, C. Peter, Sanders, Matthew, Chiesa, James. Investing in Our Children: What We Know and Don't Know About the Costs and Benefits of Early Childhood Interventions. Washington, DC: RAND. 1998.
    • ID: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monograph_reports/1998/MR898.pdf (URL)
  • Ramey, Craig T., Campbell, Frances A., Blair, C.. Enhancing the Life Course for High-Risk Children: Results from the Abecedarian Project. Social Programs that Work.New York: Russell Sage. 1998.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Nabors, L.. A longitudinal study of factors associated with Wechsler verbal and performance IQ scores in students from low-income African American families. Advances in Cognition and Educational Practice, Vol. 5: Conceptual Issues in Intelligence Research.Stanford, CT: JAI Press. 1998.
  • Burchinal, Margaret R., Campbell, Frances A., Bryant, Donna M., Wasik, Barbara H., Ramey, Craig T.. Early intervention and mediating processes in cognitive performance of children of low-income African American families. Child Development.68, (5), 935-954.1997.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1132043 (URL)
  • Spitz, Herman H.. Some questions about the results of the Abecedarian Early Intervention Project cited by the APA Task Force on Intelligence. American Psychologist.52, (1), 721997.
    • ID: 10.1037/0003-066X.52.1.72.a (DOI)
  • Burchinal, Margaret R., Roberts, Joanne E., Nabors, Laura A., Bryant, Donna M.. Quality of center child care and infant cognitive and language development. Child Development.67, (2), 606-620.1996.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1131835 (URL)
  • Campbell, Frances A., Taylor, Karen. Early Childhood Programs That Work for Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families. Young Children.51, (4), 74-80.1996.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Blair, C.. Intellectual Development and the Role of Early Experience. Current Topics in Human Intelligence.Norwood, N.J.: Ablex. 1996.
  • Slavin, Robert E.. Neverstreaming: Preventing Learning Disabilities. Educational Leadership.53, (5), 1996.
  • Vernon-Feagans, Lynne. Children's Talk in Communities and Classrooms. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. 1996.
  • Campbell, Frances A., Ramey, Craig T.. Cognitive and School Outcomes for High-Risk African-American Students at Middle Adolescence: Positive Effects of Early Intervention. American Educational Research Journal.32, (4), 743-772.1995.
  • Earls, Felton, Carlson, Maya. Promoting human capability as an alternative to early crime prevention. Integrating Crime Prevention Strategies: Propensity and Opportunity.Stockholm, Sweden: National Council for Crime Prevention. 1995.
  • Feagans, Lynne V., Fendt, Kaye, Farran, Dale C.. The effects of day care intervention on teacher's ratings of the elementary school discourse skills in disadvantaged children. International Journal of Behavioral Development.18, (2), 243-261.1995.
  • Hooper, S.R., et al. Psychometric Characteristics of the Parenting Stress Index With African-American Families. Assessment in Rehabilitation and Exceptionality.12, 133-142.1995.
  • Campbell, Frances A., Ramey, Craig T.. Effects of early intervention on intellectual and academic achievement: A follow-up study of children from low-income families. Child Development.65, (12), 684-698.1994.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1131410 (URL)
  • Feagans, Lynne V., Farran, Dale C.. The effects of daycare intervention in the preschool years on the narrative skills of poverty children in kindergarten. International Journal of Behavioral Development.17, (3), 503-523.1994.
  • Roberts, Joanne E., Burchinal, Margaret R., Campbell, Frances A.. Otitis media in early childhood and patterns of intellectual development and later academic performance. Journal of Pediatric Psychology.19, (3), 347-366.1994.
    • ID: 10.1093/jpepsy/19.3.347 (DOI)
  • Bryant, Donna M., Graham, Mimi A.. Implementing Early Intervention: From Research to Effective Practice. New York: Guilford. 1993.
  • Campbell, Frances A., Ramey, Craig T.. Mid-adolescent outcomes for high risk students: An examination of the continuing effects of early intervention. Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, 'Efficacy of Early Intervention for Poverty Children: Results from Three Longitudinal Studies' paper symposium.New Orleans, LA. 1993.
  • Burchinal, Margaret R., Bryant, Donna M., Lee, Marvin W., Ramey, Craig T.. Early day care, infant-mother attachment, and maternal responsiveness in the infant's first year. Early Childhood Research Quarterly.7, (3), 383-396.1992.
    • ID: 10.1016/0885-2006(92)90028-W (DOI)
  • Burchinal, Margaret R., et al. Differential Effects of Poverty on Intellectual Development: A Developmental Cluster Analysis. New Directions in Child and Family Research: Shaping Head Start in the 90's, Conference Proceedings, June 24-26, 1991.Washington, DC: Administration on Children, Youth and Families. 1992.
  • Ramey, Craig T., et al. Early Intervention and Long-Term Predictors of School Status. New Directions in Child and Family Research: Shaping Head Start in the 90's, Conference Proceedings, June 24-26, 1991.Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and FAmilies. 1992.
  • Spitz, Herman H.. Does the Carolina Abecedarian Early Intervention Project Prevent Sociocultural Mental Retardation?. Intelligence.16, (2), 225-237.1992.
    • ID: 10.1016/0160-2896(92)90006-D (DOI)
  • Campbell, Frances A., Goldstein, Sue, Schaefer, Earl S., Ramey, Craig T.. Parental beliefs and values related to family risk, educational intervention, and child academic competence. Early Childhood Research Quarterly.6, (2), 167-182.1991.
    • ID: 10.1016/0885-2006(91)90005-6 (DOI)
  • Campbell, Frances A., Ramey, Craig T.. The Carolina Abecedarian Project. Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development.Seattle, WA. 1991.
  • Feagans, Lynne, Fendt, Kaye. The effects of intervention and social class on children's answers to concrete and abstract questions. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology.12, (1), 115-130.1991.
    • ID: 10.1016/0193-3973(91)90035-3 (DOI)
  • Goldstein, Sue, Campbell, Frances A.. Parents: A ready resource. Arithmetic Teacher.38, 24-27.1991.
  • Goldstein, Sue, Campbell, Frances A., Bynum, Carrie. High-Risk Parents versus the Schools: An Unnecessary War. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center. 1991.
    • ID: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2/content_storage_01/0000000b/80/22/c6/3d.pdf (URL)
  • Ramey, Craig T., Campbell Frances A.. Poverty, Early Childhood Education and Academic Competence: The Abecedarian Experiment. Children in Poverty: Child Development and Public Policy.New York: Cambridge University Press. 1991.
  • Ramey, Craig T., et al. Prevention of Mental Retardation in Low Birthweight Premature Infants. Prevention of Prematurity: Proceedings of the Second IREX Symposium, Chapel Hill/Quail Roost, NC, USA, September 30-October 3, 1990.Greifswald: Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitat. 1991.
  • Bryant, Donna M., Lyons, C.M., Wasik, Barbara H.. Effects of Daycare on Health and Development. Current Opinion in Pediatrics.2, 92-107.1990.
  • Campbell, Frances A., Ramey, Craig T.. The relationship between Piagetian cognitive development, mental test performance, and academic achievement in high-risk students with and without early educational experience. Intelligence.14, (3), 293-308.1990.
    • ID: 10.1016/0160-2896(90)90020-T (DOI)
  • Martin, S.L., Ramey, Craig T., Ramey, Sharon L.. The prevention of intellectual impairment in children of impoverished families: Findings of a randomized trial of educational day care. American Journal of Public Health.80, (7), 844-847.1990.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.80.7.844 (DOI)
  • Ramey, Craig T., Ramey, Sharon Landesman. Intensive educational intervention for children of poverty. Intelligence.14, (1), 1-9.1990.
    • ID: 10.1016/0160-2896(90)90010-Q (DOI)
  • Wasik, Barbara H., Bryant, Donna M., Lyons, Claudia M.. Home Visiting: Procedures for Helping Families. Newburry Park, CA: Sage. 1990.
  • Wasik, Barbara H., Ramey, Craig T., Bryant, Donna M., Sparling, Joseph J.. A Longitudinal Study of Two Early Intervention Strategies: Project CARE. Child Development.61, (6), 1682-1696.1990.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1130831 (URL)
  • Bradley, Robert H., Caldwell, Bettye M., Rock, Stephen L., Ramey, Craig T., Barnard, Kathryn E., Gray, Carol, Hammond, Mary A., Mitchell, Sandra, Gottfried, Allen W., Siegel, Linda, Johnson, Dale L.. Home Environment and Cognitive Development in the First 3 Years of Life: A Collaborative Study Involving Six Sites and Three Ethnic Groups in North America. Developmental Psychology.25, (2), 217-235.1989.
    • ID: 10.1037/0012-1649.25.2.217 (DOI)
  • Burchinal, Margaret R., Lee, Marvin W., Ramey, Craig T.. Type of day-care and preschool intellectual development in disadvantaged children. Child Development.60, (1), 128-137.1989.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1131078 (URL)
  • Campbell, Frances A., Ramey, Craig T.. Preschool vs. School-Age Intervention for Disadvantaged Children: Where Should We Put Our Efforts?. Kansas City, MO. 1989.
  • Haskins, Ron. Beyond metaphor: The efficacy of early childhood education. American Psychologist.44, (2), 274-282.1989.
    • ID: 10.1037/0003-066X.44.2.274 (DOI)
  • Landesman, Sharon, Ramey, Craig T.. Developmental psychology and mental retardation: Integrating scientific principles with treatment practices. American Psychologist.44, (2), 409-415.1989.
    • ID: 10.1037/0003-066X.44.2.409 (DOI)
  • Ramey, Craig T.. Environmental Interventions for Low Birthweight Infants. Wissenchaftliche Zeitschrift (Special Edition).Greifswald, Germany: Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitat. 1989.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Bryant, Donna M., Campbell, Frances A., Sparling, Joseph J., et al. Early intervention for high-risk children: The Carolina Early Intervention Program. Prevention in Human Services.7, (1), 33-57.1989.
    • ID: 10.1300/J293v07n01_03 (DOI)
  • Ramey, Craig T., Lee, M.W., Burchinal, Margaret. Developmental plasticity and predictability: Consequences of ecological change. Stability and Continuity in Mental Development: Behavioral and Biological Perspectives.Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum. 1989.
  • Roberts, Joanne E., Burchinal, Margaret R., Collier, A.M., Ramey, Craig T., Koch, M.A., Henderson, F.W.. Otitis media in early childhood and cognitive, academic, and classroom performance of the school-aged child. Pediatrics.83, (4), 477-485.1989.
  • Roberts, Joanne E., Rabinowitch, Shoshanna, Bryant, Donna M., Burchinal, Margaret R., et al. Language skills of children with different preschool experiences. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research.32, (4), 773-786.1989.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Bryant, Donna M.. Early Intervention: Why, for Whom, at What Cost?. Understanding Mental Retardation: Research Accomplishments and New Frontiers.Baltimore, MD: Brookes. 1988.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Bryant, Donna M.. Prevention-oriented infant education programs. Children and Families: Studies in Prevention and Intervention.Madison, CT: International Universities Press. 1988.
  • Ramey, Craig T., et al. Early Intervention for High-Risk Children: The Carolina Early Intervention Program. 14 Ounces of Prevention: A Casebook for Practitioners.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 1988.
  • Vernon-Feagans, Lynne, Blood, I., Budman, J.G.. Otitis Media: Models of Effects and Implications for Intervention. Hearing Impairment in Children.Parkton, MD: York Press. 1988.
  • Bryant, Donna M., Ramey, Craig T.. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Early Intervention Programs for High-Risk Children. Effectiveness of Early Intervention for At-Risk and Handicapped Children .Orlando: Academic Press. 1987.
  • Bryant, Donna M., Ramey, Craig T., Sparling, Joseph J., Wasik, Barbara H.. The Carolina Approach to Responsive Education: A model for day care. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education.7, (1), 48-60.1987.
    • ID: 10.1177/027112148700700105 (DOI)
  • Feagans, Lynne, Sanyal, M., Henderson, F., Collier, A., Appelbaum, M.. Relationship of middle ear disease in early childhood to later narrative and attention skills. Journal of Pediatric Psychology.12, (4), 581-594.1987.
    • ID: 10.1093/jpepsy/12.4.581 (DOI)
  • Gallagher, John J., Ramey, Craig T.. The Malleability of Children. Baltimore, MD: P.H. Brookes. 1987.
  • Horacek, H. Joseph, Ramey, Craig T., Campbell, Frances A.. Predicting school failure and assessing early intervention with high-risk children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.26, (5), 758-763.1987.
    • ID: 10.1097/00004583-198709000-00024 (DOI)
  • Ramey, Craig T., Bryant, Donna M.. Environmental Intervention for Low Birthweight Infants. Follow-Up Management of the High-Risk Infant.Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company. 1987.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Campbell, Frances A.. The Carolina Abecedarian Project: An Educational Experiment Concerning Human Malleability. The Malleability of Children.Baltimore, MD: Brookes. 1987.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Campbell, Frances A., Bryant, Donna M.. The Abecedarian Project. Encyclopedia of Special Education: A Reference of the Handicapped and Other Exceptional Children and Adults, Vol. 1.New York: Wiley. 1987.
  • Boat, B.W., Campbell, Frances A., Ramey, Craig T.. Preventive education and birth order as co-determinants of IQ in disadvantaged 5-year-olds. Child: Care, Health and Development.12, (1), 25-36.1986.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.1986.tb00484.x (DOI)
  • Breitmayer, Bonnie J., Ramey, Craig T.. Biological Nonoptimality and Quality of Postnatal Environment as Codeterminants of Intellectual Development. Child Development.57, (5), 1151-1165.1986.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1130439 (URL)
  • Campbell, Frances A., Breitmayer, Bonnie, Ramey, Craig T.. Disadvantaged Single Teenage Mothers and Their Children: Consequences of Free Educational Day Care. Family Relations.35, (1), 63-68.1986.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/584284 (URL)
  • Campbell, Frances A., Ramey, Craig T.. High-risk infants environmental risk factors. Science and Service in Mental Retardation: Proceedings of the Seventh Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency (IASSMD).New York: Methuen. 1986.
  • Campbell, Suzann K., Siegel, Earl, Parr, Carol A., Ramey, Craig T.. Evidence for the need to renorm the Bayley Scales of Infant Development based on the performance of a population-based sample of 12-month-old infants. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education.6, (2), 83-96.1986.
    • ID: 10.1177/027112148600600208 (DOI)
  • Farran, Dale Clark, Cooper, D.H.. Psychosocial Risk: Which Early Experiences are Important for Whom?. Risk in Intellectual and Psychosocial Development.Orlando, FL: Academic Press. 1986.
  • Ramey, Craig T., MacPhee, D.. Developmental retardation among the poor: A systems theory perspective on risk and prevention. Risk in Intellectual and Psychosocial Development.Orlando, FL: Academic Press. 1986.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Yeates, K.O., MacPhee, D.. Risk for retarded development among disadvantaged families: A systems theory approach to preventive intervention. Risk Factors in Infancy.New York: Gordon and Breach Science. 1986.
  • Roberts, Joanne E., Sanyal, M.A., Burchinal, Margaret R., Collier, A.M., Ramey, Craig T., Henderson , F.W.. Otitis media in early childhood and its relationship to later verbal and academic performance. Pediatrics.78, (3), 423-430.1986.
  • Vernon-Feagans, Lynne. Otitis Media: A Model for Long Effects with Implications for Intervention. Otitis Media and Child Development.Parkton, MD: York Press. 1986.
  • Bryant, Donna M., Ramey, Craig T.. Prevention-oriented infant education programs. Infant Intervention Programs: Truths and Untruths.New York: Haworth. 1985.
  • Haskins, Ron. Public School Aggression among Children with Varying Day-Care Experience. Child Development.56, (3), 689-703.1985.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1129759 (URL)
  • Ramey, Craig T., Bryant, Donna M.. Preschool Compensatory Education and the Modifiability of Intelligence: A Critical Review. Current Topics in Human Intelligence.Norwood, NJ: Ablex. 1985.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Bryant, Donna M., Sparling, Joseph J., Wasik, Barbara H.. Project CARE: A comparison of two early intervention strategies to prevent retarded development. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education.5, (2), 12-25.1985.
    • ID: 10.1177/027112148500500203 (DOI)
  • Ramey, Craig T., Yeates, Keith Owen, Short, Elizabeth J.. The Plasticity of Intellectual Development: Insights from Preventive Intervention. Child Development.55, (5), 1913-1925.1985.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1129938 (URL)
  • Ramey, Craig T., et al. Educational Interventions to Enhance Intellectual Development: Comprehensive Daycare vs. Family Education. The At-Risk Infant.Baltimore, MD: Brookes. 1985.
  • Sparling, Joseph, Lewis, Isabelle. Learningames for Threes and Fours: A Guide to Adult/Child Play. New York: Berkley Books. 1985.
  • Adams, Judith L., Campbell, Frances A., Ramey, Craig T.. Infants' home environments: A study of screening efficiency. American Journal of Mental Deficiency.89, (2), 133-139.1984.
  • Adams, Judith L., Evans, G.A., Roberts, Joanne E.. Diagnosing and treating otitis media with effusion. American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing.9, (1), 22-28.1984.
    • ID: 10.1097/00005721-198401000-00007 (DOI)
  • Bryant, Donna M., Ramey, Craig T.. Prevention-oriented infant education programs. Journal of Children in Contemporary Society.17, (1), 17-35.1984.
  • Farran, Dale Clark, et al. Allegiances or Attachments: Relationships Among Infants and Their Day Care Teachers. The Child and the Day Care Setting: Qualitative Variations and Development.New York: Praeger. 1984.
  • Gordon, Alice M.. Adequacy of responses given by low-income and middle-income kindergarten children in structured adult-child conversations. Developmental Psychology.20, (5), 881-892.1984.
    • ID: 10.1037/0012-1649.20.5.881 (DOI)
  • MacPhee, D., Ramey, Craig T., Yeates, K.O.. The Home Environment and Early Mental Development: Implications for Intervention. Home Environment and Early Cognitive Development: Longitudinal Research.Orlando, FL: Academic Press. 1984.
  • Pace, A., Vernon-Feagans, Lynne. Knowledge and Language: Children's Ability to Communicate What They Know and to Comprehend Narratives About Familiar Events. The Origins and Growth and Communicationi.Norwood, NJ: Ablex. 1984.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Baker-Ward, L.. Early Experience and Mild Mental Retardation. International Encyclopedia of Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychoanalysis, and Neurology.New York: Aesculapius. 1984.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Breitmayer, Bonnie J., Goldman, B.D.. Learning and Cognition During Infancy. Atypical Infant Development.Baltimore, MD: University Park Press. 1984.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Bryant, Donna M., Sparling, Joseph J., Wasik, Barbara H.. A biosocial systems perspective on environmental interventions for low birth weight infants. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology.27, (3), 672-692.1984.
    • ID: 10.1097/00003081-198409000-00014 (DOI)
  • Ramey, Craig T., Campbell, Frances A.. Preventive education for high-risk children: Cognitive consequences of the Carolina Abecedarian Project. American Journal of Mental Deficiency.88, (5), 515-523.1984.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Gowen, Jean W.. A general systems approach to modifying risk for retarded development. Early Child Development and Care.16, (1-2), 9-26.1984.
    • ID: 10.1080/0300443840160102 (DOI)
  • Ramey, Craig T., Suarez, T.M.. Early intervention and the early experience paradigm: Toward a better framework for social policy. Journal of Children in Contemporary Society.17, (1), 3-13.1984.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Yeates, K.O., MacPhee, D.. Risk for retarded development among disadvantaged families: A systems theory approach to preventive intervention. Advances in Special Education, Vol. 4.Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. 1984.
  • Ramey, Crait G., Campbell, Frances A., Finkelstein, Neal W.. Course and Structure of Intellectual Development in Children at High-Risk for Developmental Retardation. Learning and Cognition in the Mentally Retarded.Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum. 1984.
  • Vernon-Feagans, Lynne, Garvey, Catherine, Golinkoff, Roberta M.. The Origins and Growth of Communication. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. 1984.
  • Moser, H.W., Ramey, Craig T., Leonard, C.O.. Mental Retardation. Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics, Vol. 1.New York: Churchill Livingstone. 1983.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Bryant, Donna M.. Early Intervention. Handbook of Mental Retardation.New York: Pergamon. 1983.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Dorval, B., Baker-Ward, L.. Group Day Care and Socially Disadvantaged Families: Effects on the Child, the Parents, and the Family. Advances in Early Education and Day Care.Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. 1983.
  • Schaefer, E.S.. Parent-professional interaction: Research, parental, professional and public perspectives. Parent Education and Public Policy.Norwood, NJ: Ablex. 1983.
  • Sparling, Joseph J., Lowman, B.. Parent information interaction: Research, parental, professional and public perspectives. Parent Education and Public Policy.Norwood, NJ: Ablex. 1983.
  • Walden, Tedra A., Ramey, Craig T.. Locus of control and academic achievement: Results from a preschool intervention program. Journal of Educational Psychology.75, (3), 347-358.1983.
    • ID: 10.1037/0022-0663.75.3.347 (DOI)
  • Yeates, Keith O., MacPhee, David, Campbell, Frances A.. Maternal IQ and home environment as determinants of early childhood intellectual competence: A developmental analysis. Developmental Psychology.19, (5), 731-739.1983.
    • ID: 10.1037/0012-1649.19.5.731 (DOI)
  • Farran, Dale Clark. Intervention for Poverty Children: Alternative Approaches. The Language of Children Reared in Poverty: Implications for Evaluation and Intervention.New York: Academic Press. 1982.
  • Farran, Dale Clark. Mother-Child Interaction, Language Development and the School Performance of Poverty Children. The Language of Children Reared in Poverty: Implications for Evaluation and Intervention.New York: Academic Press. 1982.
  • Finkelstein, Neal W.. Aggression: Is It Stimulated by Day Care?. Young Children.37, (6), 3-9.1982.
  • Gordon, Alice M.. Introduction. The Language of Children Reared in Poverty: Implications for Evaluation and Intervention.New York: Academic Press. 1982.
  • Gordon, Alice M.. Is the Language Development of High-Risk Children Affected by Environmental Assistance?. Proceedings of the Mid America Linguistics Conference.Lincoln, NE: Linguistics Area Study Committee. 1982.
  • McGinness, Gael D.. The Language of the Poverty Child: Implications From Center-Based Intervention and Evaluation Programs. The Language of Children Reared in Poverty: Implications for Evaluation and Intervention.New York: Academic Press. 1982.
  • O'Connell, Joanne C., Farran, Dale C.. Effects of day-care experience on the use of intentional communicative behaviors in a sample of socioeconomically depressed infants. Developmental Psychology.18, (1), 22-29.1982.
    • ID: 10.1037/0012-1649.18.1.22 (DOI)
  • Ramey, Craig T.. SRCD Commentary. Lasting Effects of Early Education: A Report from the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies.Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 1982.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Bryant, Donna M.. Evidence for Prevention of Developmental Retardation During Infancy. Journal of Early Intervention.5, (1), 73-78.1982.
    • ID: 10.1177/105381518200500109 (DOI)
  • Ramey, Craig T., Bryant, Donna M.. Evidence for Primary Prevention of Developmental Retardation. Journal of the Division for Early Childhood.5, (73), 78 -1982.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Campbell, Frances A.. Compensatory Education for Disadvantaged Children. In the Beginning: Readings on Infancy.New York: Columbia University Press. 1982.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Campbell, Frances A., Wasik, Barbara H.. Use of standardized tests to evaluate early childhood special education programs. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education.1, (4), 51-60.1982.
    • ID: 10.1177/027112148200100409 (DOI)
  • Ramey, Craig T., MacPhee, D., Yeates, K.O.. Preventing development retardation: A general systems model. Facilitating Infant and Early Childhood Development.Hanover, NH: University Press of New England. 1982.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Sparling, Joseph J., Bryant, Donna M., Wasik, Barbara H.. Primary prevention of developmental retardation during infancy. Prevention in Human Services.1, (4), 61-83.1982.
    • ID: 10.1300/J293v01n04_05 (DOI)
  • Ramey, Craig T., Trohanis, Pascal Louis. Finding and Educating High-Risk and Handicapped Infants. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press. 1982.
  • Ramey, Craig T., et al. The Abecedarians Approach to Social Competence: Cognitive and Linguistic Intervention for Disadvantaged Preschoolers. The Social Life of Children in a Changing Society.Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum. 1982.
  • Schaefer, E.S.. Professional support for family care of children. Maternal and Child Health Practices: Problems, Resources, and Methods of Delivery.New York: Wiley. 1982.
  • Sparling, Joseph, Lewis, Isabelle. Games for loving and learning: Excerpt from Learningames for the first three years. Redbook.158, 61-63.1982.
  • Vernon-Feagans, Lynne. The Importance of Narratives for School-Aged Children. The Language of Children Reared in Poverty: Implications for Evaluation and Intervention.New York: Academic Press. 1982.
  • Vernon-Feagans, Lynne, Farran, Dale Clark. The Language of Children Reared in Poverty: Implications for Evaluation and Intervention. New York: Academic Press. 1982.
  • Feagans, Lynne, Farran, Dale C.. How demonstrated comprehension can get muddled in production. Developmental Psychology.17, (6), 718-727.1981.
    • ID: 10.1037/0012-1649.17.6.718 (DOI)
  • Haskins, Ron. Minor illness and social behavior of infants and caregivers. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology.2, (2), 117-128.1981.
    • ID: 10.1016/0193-3973(81)90033-2 (DOI)
  • Jay, Susan, Farran, Dale C.. The relative efficacy of predicting IQ from mother-child interactions using ratings versus behavioral count measures. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology.2, (2), 165-177.1981.
    • ID: 10.1016/0193-3973(81)90036-8 (DOI)
  • Lewis, Isabelle, Sparling, Joseph. Toddler learning games. Parents.56, (2), 70-74.1981.
  • McGinness, Gael D., Ramey, Craig T.. Developing Sociolinguistic Competence in Children. Canadian Journal of Research in Early Childhood Education.1, (2), 22-43.1981.
  • Ramey, Craig T.. Consequences of Infant Daycare. Infants, Their Social Environments.Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children. 1981.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Baker-Ward L.. Psychosocial Retardation and the Early Experience Paradigm. Intervention with At-Risk and Handicapped Infants: From Research to Application.Baltimore, MD: University Park Press. 1981.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Brownlee, John R.. Improving the identification of high-risk infants. American Journal of Mental Deficiency.85, (5), 504-511.1981.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Campbell, Frances A.. Educational Intervention for Children at Risk for Mild Retardation: A Longitudinal Analysis. Frontiers of Knowledge in Mental Retardation: Fifthe Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency (IASSMD). Vol. 1, Social, Educational, and Behavioral Aspects.Baltimore, MD: University Park Press. 1981.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Farran, Dale C.. The functional concern of mothers for their infants. Infant Mental Health Journal.2, (1), 48-55.1981.
    • ID: 10.1002/1097-0355(198121)2:1<48::AID-IMHJ2280020108>3.0.CO;2-E (DOI)
  • Ramey, Craig T., Finkelstein, Neal W.. Psychosocial mental retardation: A biological and social coalescence, Vol. 2. Strategies for Improving Competence. Psychosocial Influences in Retarded Performance.Baltimore, MD: University Park Press. 1981.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Haskins, R.. The causes and treatment of school failure: Insights from the Carolina Abecedarian Project. Psychosocial Influences in Retarded Performance.Baltimore, MD: University Park Press. 1981.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Haskins, Ron. Early education, intellectual development, and school performance: A reply to Arthur Jensen and J. McVicker Hunt. Intelligence.5, (1), 41-48.1981.
    • ID: 10.1016/0160-2896(81)90016-7 (DOI)
  • Ramey, Craig T., Haskins, Ron. The modification of intelligence through early experience. Intelligence.5, (1), 5-19.1981.
    • ID: 10.1016/0160-2896(81)90013-1 (DOI)
  • Ramey, Craig T., McKinney, J.D.. The education of learning disabled children suspected of minimal brain dysfunction. Brain Dysfunction in Children: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management.New York: Raven Press. 1981.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Sparling, Joseph J., Wasik, R.. Creating social environments to facilitate language development: An early education approach. Early Language: Acquisition and Intervention.Baltimore, MD: University park Press. 1981.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Zeskind, P.S., Hunter, R.S.. Biomedical and Psychosocial Interventions for Preterm Infants. Preterm Birth and Psychological Development.New York: Academic Press. 1981.
  • Schaefer, E.S.. Biomedical and psychosocial interventions for preterm infants. Psychosocial Influences in Retarded Performance.Baltimore, MD: University Park Press. 1981.
  • Sparling, Joseph J.. Curriculum for the very young: Have we forgotten something?. Forum.7, (2), 12-23.1981.
  • Sparling, Joseph, Lewis, Isabelle. Learningames for the First Three Years: A Guide to Parent-Child Play. New York: Berkley Books. 1981.
  • Sparling, Joseph, Lewis, Isabelle. Learningames for the First Three Years: A Program for a Parent/Center Partnership. New York: Walker Educational Book Corporation. 1981.
  • Zeskind, Philip S., Ramey, Craig T.. Preventing Intellectual and Interactional Sequelae of Fetal Malnutrition: A Longitudinal, Transactional, and Synergistic Approach to Development. Child Development.52, (1), 213-218.1981.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1129233 (URL)
  • Adams, Judith L., Ramey, Craig T.. Structural Aspects of Maternal Speech to Infants Reared in Poverty. Child Development.51, (4), 1280-1284.1980.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1129573 (URL)
  • Farran, Dale C., Haskins, Ron T.. Reciprocal Influence in the Social Interactions of Mothers and Three-Year-Old Children from Different Socioeconomic Backgrounds. Child Development.51, (3), 780-791.1980.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1129465 (URL)
  • Farran, Dale C., Hirschbiel, Paul, Jay, Susan. Toward interactive synchrony: The gaze patterns of mothers and children in three age groups. International Journal of Behavioral Development.3, (2), 215-224.1980.
  • Farran, Dale C., Ramey, Craig T.. Social Class Differences in Dyadic Involvement During Infancy. Child Development.51, (1), 254-257.1980.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1129616 (URL)
  • Farran, Dale Clark, Haskins, Ron T., Gallagher, James J.. Poverty and mental retardation: A search for explanations. New Directions for Exceptional Children: Ecology of Exceptional Children.San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 1980.
  • Finkelstein, Neal W., Gallagher, James J., Farran, Dale C.. Attentiveness and responsiveness to auditory stimuli of children at risk for mental retardation. American Journal of Mental Deficiency.85, (2), 135-144.1980.
  • Finkelstein, Neal W., Ramey, Craig T.. Information from birth certificates as a risk index for educational handicap. American Journal of Mental Deficiency.84, (6), 546-552.1980.
  • Ramey, Craig T.. Preventing Mental Retardation That Is Socially Caused. Prevention of Developmental Disabilities: A Report from theConference on the Prevention of Developmental Disabilities Columbus, Ohio, June 19, 1979.Columbus, OH: Ohio State University . 1980.
  • Ramey, Craig T.. Psychosocial Disadvantage and the Treatment of Preschool Children. The 'At Risk' Infant: A Practical Interdisciplinary Approach to the Prevention, Discovery, Assessment, and Management of Developmental Disabilities. Selected Papers from the International Workshop on the 'At Risk' Infant, Tel-Aviv, July 24-31, 1979.Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica. 1980.
  • Ramey, Craig T.. Social Consequences of Ecological Intervention that Began in Infancy. The 'At Risk' Infant: A Practical Interdisciplinary Approach to the Prevention, Discovery, Assessment, and Management of Developmental Disabilities. Selected Papers from the International Workshop on the 'At Risk' Infant, Tel-Aviv, July 24-31, 1979.Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica. 1980.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Beckman-Bell, P., Gowen, Jean. Infant Characteristics and Infant-Caregiver Interactions: Implications from Research for Educating Handicapped Infants. New Directions for Exceptional Children.San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 1980.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Gowen, Jean W.. Children at risk: Identification and intervention. Children Today.9, 12-16.1980.
  • Schaefer, E.S.. Professional roles in family support systems. Issues in Early Education.Columbia, MO: University of Missouri-Columbia. 1980.
  • Gallagher, John J., Haskins, Ron T., Farran, Dale C.. Poverty and Public Policy for Children. The Family: Setting Priorities.. 1979.
  • Ramey, Craig T.. Methods for Assessing Mother-Infant Interactions. Infant Assessment: Issues and Applications.Seattle, WA: Western States Technical Assistance Resource (WESTAR). 1979.
  • Ramey, Craig T., et al. The Abecedarian Approach to Social Competence: Cognitive and Linguistic Intervention for Disadvantaged Preschoolers. ED173475, . 1979.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Campbell, Frances A.. Early childhood education for psychosocially disadvantaged children: Effects on psychological processes. American Journal of Mental Deficiency.83, (6), 645-648.1979.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Farran, Dale C., Campbell, Frances A.. Early Intervention: From Research to Practice. Infant Assessment: Issues and Applications.Seattle, WA: WESTAR. 1979.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Farran, Dale C., Campbell, Frances A.. Predicting IQ from Mother-Infant Interactions. Child Development.50, (3), 804-814.1979.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1128947 (URL)
  • Schaefer, E.S.. Professional paradigms in child and family health programs. American Journal of Public Health.69, (9), 849-850.1979.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.69.9.849 (DOI)
  • Sparling, Joseph, Lewis, Isabelle. 6 learning games to play with your baby: Excerpt from Learningames for the first three years. Parents.54, 35-38.1979.
  • Finkelstein, Neal W., Dent, Cathy, Gallacher, Kathleen. Social behavior of infants and toddlers in a day-care environment. Developmental Psychology.14, (3), 257-262.1978.
    • ID: 10.1037/0012-1649.14.3.257 (DOI)
  • Haskins, Ron. Effects of repeated assessment on standardized test performance by infants. American Journal of Mental Deficiency.83, (3), 233-239.1978.
  • Haskins, Ron, Collier, Albert M., Ramey, Craig T.. The effect of mild illness on habituation in the first year of life. Journal of Pediatric Psychology.3, (3), 150-155.1978.
    • ID: 10.1093/jpepsy/3.3.150 (DOI)
  • Haskins, Ron, Finkelstein, Neal W., Stedman, Donald J.. Infant-stimulation programs and their effects. Pediatric Annals.7, (2), 123-146.1978.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Finkelstein, Neal W.. Contingent stimulation and infant competence. Journal of Pediatric Psychology.3, (2), 89-96.1978.
    • ID: 10.1093/jpepsy/3.2.89 (DOI)
  • Ramey, Craig T., Stedman, Donald J., Borders-Patterson, Ann. Predicting school failure from information available at birth. American Journal of Mental Deficiency.82, (6), 525-534.1978.
  • Sparling, Joseph, Lewis, Isabelle. Helping your baby learn faster. Parents.53, 70-71.1978.
  • Zeskind, Philip S., Ramey, Craig T.. Fetal Malnutrition: An Experimental Study of Its Consequences on Infant Development in Two Caregiving Environments. Child Development.49, (4), 1155-1162.1978.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1128755 (URL)
  • Boyce, W.T., Jensen, E.W., Cassel, J.C., Collier, A.M., Smith, A.H., Ramey, Craig T.. Influence of life events and family routines on childhood respiratory tract illness. Pediatrics.60, (4 Pt. 2), 609-615.1977.
  • Campbell, Frances, O'Brien, Ralph, Mills, Pamela J.. A comparison of the factor structure of Rotter's Internality-Externality Scale in advantaged and disadvantaged young mothers. Journal of Genetic Psychology.130, (2), 201-209.1977.
    • ID: 10.1080/00221325.1977.10533252 (DOI)
  • Farran, Dale Clark, Ramey, Craig T.. Infant Day Care and Attachment Behaviors Toward Mothers and Reachers. Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry and Child Development, 1976.New York: Brunner/Mazel. 1977.
  • Finkelstein, Neal W., Ramey, Craig T.. Learning to Control the Environment in Infancy. Child Development.48, (3), 806-819.1977.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1128329 (URL)
  • Ramey, Craig T., Campbell, Frances A.. The Prevention of Developmental Retardation in High-Risk Children. Research to Practice in Mental Retardation, Proceedings of the Fourth Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., 22-27 August, 1976, the American University.Baltimore, MD: University Park Press. 1977.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Finkelstein, Neal W.. Early Stimulation and Mental Retardation. Wolman, Benjamin B..New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1977.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Mills, P.J.. Social and intellectual consequences of day-care for high-risk infants. Social Development in Childhood: Day-Care Programs and Research.Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. 1977.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Smith, Barbara J.. Assessing the intellectual consequences of early intervention with high-risk infants. American Journal of Mental Deficiency.81, (4), 318-324.1977.
  • Ramey, Craig T., et al. An Introduction to the Carolina Abecedarian Project. Infant Education: A Guide for Helping Handicapped Children in the First Three Years.New York: Walker. 1977.
  • Woodcock, Richard, Johnson, M. Bonner. Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery. Riverside Publishing, instruments. 1977.
  • Collier, A.M., Ramey, Craig T.. The health of infants in day care. Voice for Children.9, 7-11.1976.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Finkelstein, Neal W., O'Brien, Carolyn. Toys and infant behavior in the first year of life. Journal of Genetic Psychology.129, (2), 341-342.1976.
    • ID: 10.1080/00221325.1976.10534049 (DOI)
  • Ramey, Craig T., Stein, J.S., Campbell, Frances A.. Data systems to support identification and intervention programs for high-risk infants. Early Intervention with Severely Handicapped Infants: Programming and Accountability.Eugene, OR: University of Oregon. 1976.
  • Ramey, Craig T., et al. The Carolina Abecedarian Project: A Longitudinal and Multidisciplinary Approach to the Prevention of Developmental Retardation. Intervention Strategies for High Risk Infants and Young Children.Baltimore, MD: University Park Press. 1976.
  • Schaefer, E.S.. Scope and focus of research relevant to intervention: A socio-ecological perspective. Intervention Strategies for High Risk Infants and Young Children.Baltimore, MD: University Park Press. 1976.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Gallagher, J.J.. The nature of cultural deprivation: Theoretical issues and suggested research strategies. North Carolina Journal of Mental Health.7, 41-47.1975.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Mills, Pamela, Campbell, Frances A.. Infants' home environments: A comparison of high-risk families and families from the general population. American Journal of Mental Deficiency.80, (1), 40-42.1975.
  • Sparling, Joseph J.. Carolina infant curriculum. The Comprehensive Management of Infants at Risk for CNS Deficits: Proceedings, May 22, 23, and 24, 1974.Chapel Hill, NC: Pediatric Fellowship Program, Division of Physical Therapy. 1975.
  • Ramey, Craig T.. Children and public policy: A role for psychologists. American Psychologist.29, (1), 14-18.1974.
    • ID: 10.1037/h0036055 (DOI)
  • Sparling, Joseph J., Sparling, M.C.. How to talk to a scribbler. Providing the Best for Young Children.Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children. 1974.
  • Ramey, Craig T., Campbell, Frances A., Nicholson, Janet E.. The Predictive Power of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test in a Relatively Constant Environment. Child Development.44, (4), 790-795.1973.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1127725 (URL)
  • McCarthy, Dorothea. McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Psychological Corporation, instruments. 1972.
    • ID: https://www.pearsonassessments.com/haiweb/cultures/en-us/productdetail.htm?pid=015-8188-608&Community=CA_Psych_AI_Ability (URL)

Update Metadata: 2019-09-04 | Issue Number: 2 | Registration Date: 2018-07-18

Ramey, Craig T.; Gallagher, James J. (James John); Campbell, Frances; Wasik, Barbara Hanna; Sparling, Joseph (2004): Carolina Abecedarian Project and the Carolina Approach to Responsive Education (CARE), United States, 1972-1992. Version 2. Version: v2. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04091.v2