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Stereotype Threat as a Cause for the low Achievement of Students With Migration Background in the German Educational System (Stereotype Threat)

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data, achievement test
  • Martiny, Sarah E.
  • Froehlich, Laura
  • Mok, Sog Yee
  • Deaux, Kay
Publication Date
  • Forschungsdatenzentrum (FDZ) am Institut zur Qualitätsentwicklung im Bildungswesen (IQB) / Research Data Centre (FDZ) at the Institute for Educational Quality Improvement (IQB) (Distributor)
Free Keywords
Turc; Achievement Assessment; Educational Opportunity; Student; Germany; German; Mathematics; Migration Background; Performance Gap; Survey; Experiment; Performance Tests; Achievement; Influencing Factor; Language Skills; Disadvantage; Stereotype; Equal Opportunity; Student Achievement
  • Abstract

    The aim of the research project was to examine the influence of ability-related negative stereotypes on different domains of academic achievement of students with (Turkish) migration background in the German educational system. It was hypothesized, that differences in achievement between students with and without migration background are partly due to negative stereotypes regarding immigrants, and the activation of these negative achievement related stereotypes in testing situations. Firstly, in a series of experimental studies, the activation of negative stereotypes in testing situations was systematically manipulated; the effects of this manipulation on student achievement in language and mathematical achievement tests (e.g. PISA) was investigated in students with and without migration background. The effects of different ways of activating stereotypes were compared with each other and with control conditions in which no stereotypes were activated. Secondly, the impact of the migrating generation and the age of students with and without migration background on dealing with stereotype activation and its consequences for achievement were investigated. [The activation of achievement related negative stereotypes influenced the achievement of both students with and without migration background. If achievement related group differences were pointed out prior to the test, there was a significant difference between the mathematical achievement of German students and students with Turkish migration background. If however, prior to testing, it was said that no differences between the groups exist, no achievement differences between the groups showed in the subsequent test.] (DIPF/funding agency). The project was divided into several studies: Study description 1 a neu: It was assessed whether implicit theories of intelligence moderate the effects of stereotype threat. Implicit theories of intelligence are subjective beliefs of persons regarding the stability (entity theory) or variability (incremental theory) of intelligence (Dweck, 1999). The combination of stereotype threat (which implies the ability of a group to be stable) and the stability beliefs regarding their own ability should lead to especially heavy losses in achievement for migrants of Turkish origin. Study description 1 b neu: The impact of negative stereotypes on the mathematical achievement of students with a Turkish migration background was investigated. Additionally to migration background (Turkish vs. no migration background) the variable “self-chosen ethnic group identity” was investigated. Study description 1c DE: It was investigated whether implicit theories of intelligence moderate the effect of stereotype threat on students of Turkish origin (in combination with an examiner of German origin). Study description 1c TR: It was investigated whether implicit theories of intelligence moderate the effect of stereotype threat on students of Turkish origin (with Turkish examiner). The dataset includes only data with a Turkish examiner. To investigate the impact of a Turkish examiner data sets 1c DE and 1c TR have to be merged. Study description 3c: Survey concerning group identification and public regard in immigrants of Turkish origin and their contact to Germans. Study description 3 d/e: Longitudinal study investigating whether negative stereotypes about different ethnic groups are well-known among primary school students with and without migration background. Additionally, further investigations into the effects of stereotype threat on primary school students were conducted.

Temporal Coverage
  • 2012-01-01 / 2014-12-31
  • 2012-07-01 / 2012-07-31
  • 2012-12-01 / 2012-12-31
  • 2013-02-01 / 2013-03-31
  • 2013-05-01 / 2013-07-01
  • 2014-09-01 / 2015-01-31
Geographic Coverage
  • Baden-Wuerttemberg
  • Berlin
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
Sampled Universe

Study 1a: students in grade 9 (N=310)

Study 1b: students in grade 9 (N=230)

Study 1c DE: students in grade 9 (N=298)

Study 1c TR: students in grade 9 (N=392)

Study 3c: students in grade 9 and 10 (N=279)

Studie 3d/e: students in elemantary school (N=458)


Non-Probability Sample

Time Dimension
  • Longitudinal: Cohort/Event-based
  • Cross-section
    Research Design: Quasi-Experimental Design and Observational Design
Collection Mode
  • Self-administered questionnaire: Paper
  • Educational measurements and tests
  • Measurements and Tests: Paper & Pencil
application required:
CC0 1.0 Universal
Alternative Identifiers
  • 1 (Type: VerbundFDB)
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.5159/IQB_Stereotype_Threat_v3
  • Is documented by
    DOI: 10.5159/IQB_Stereotype_Threat_Skalendokumentation_v1
    • ID: (URL)
    • ID: 10.1027/1864-9335/a000403 (DOI)
    • ID: (URL)
    • ID: 978-0-19-973244-9 (ISBN)
  • Froehlich, L., Mok, S. Y., Martiny, S. E., & Deaux, K. (2018). Stereotype threat effects for Turkish-origin immigrants in Germany: Taking stock of cumulative research evidence. European Educational Research Journal, 1-25.

  • Mok, S. Y., Martiny, S. E., Gleibs, I. H., Deaux, K., & Froehlich, L. (2017). The interaction of vertical collectivism and stereotype activation on the performance of Turkish-origin high school students. Learning and Individual Differences, 56, 76-84.

    • ID: 10.1016/j.lindif.2017.05.002 (DOI)
  • Froehlich, L., Martiny, S. E., Deaux, K., Goetz, T. and Mok, S. Y. (2016). Being smart or getting smarter: Implicit theory of intelligence moderates stereotype threat and stereotype lift effects. Br. J. Soc. Psychol., 55: 564–587.

    • ID: 10.1111/bjso.12144 (DOI)
  • Martiny, S. E. (2016). Stereotype Threat als Ursache niedriger Leistungen von Schülerinnen und Schülern mit Migrationshintergrund im deutschen Bildungssystem. Konstanz: Universität Konstanz.

  • Mok, S. Y., Martiny, S. E., Gleibs, I. H., Keller, M. M. & Froehlich, L. (2016). The Relationship between Ethnic Classoom Composition and Turkish-Origin and German Students' Reading Performance and Sense of Belonging, Frontiers in Psychology 7/2016.

    • ID: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01071 (DOI)
  • Froehlich, L., Martiny, S.E., Deaux, K. and Mok, S. Y. (2015). It's Their Responsibility, Not Our Stereotypes About Competence and Casual Attributions for Immigrants' Academic Underperformance. In: Social Psychology (2016), 47, pp. 74-86.

    • ID: 10.1027/1864-9335/a000260 (DOI)
  • Mok, S. Y., Froehlich, L., & Scholz, C. (2015). Leistungsminderung durch negative Stereotype im Schulkontext. Lehren & Lernen, 41, 28-31. Villingen-Schwenningen: Neckar-Verlag GmbH.

    • ID: 0341-8294 (ISSN)
  • Martiny, S. E., Mok, S. Y., Deaux, K. und Froehlich, L. (2014). Effects of activating negative stereotypes about Turkish-origin students on performance and identity management in German high schools. Revue internationale de psychologie sociale 3/2014 (Volume 27), p. 205-225.

  • Inzlicht, M. und Schmader, T. (Eds.) (2012). Stereotype threat: Theory, Process, and Application. Oxford University Press.

  • Martiny, S. E. und Götz, T. (2011). Stereotype Threat in Lern- und Leistungssituationen: Wirkungen auf Leistung und Motivation. In K. A. Heller, A. Ziegler, und F. J. Mönks (Series Eds.), Talentförderung - Expertiseentwicklung – Leistungsexzellenz. Berlin: LIT Verlag.

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Update Metadata: 2020-03-22 | Issue Number: 7 | Registration Date: 2019-02-14

Martiny, Sarah E.; Froehlich, Laura; Mok, Sog Yee; Deaux, Kay (2019): Stereotype Threat als Ursache niedriger Leistungen von Schülerinnen und Schülern mit Migrationshintergrund im deutschen Bildungssystem (Stereotype Threat). Version: 4. IQB – Institut zur Qualitätsentwicklung im Bildungswesen. Dataset.