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Survey on Discrimination and Hate Crime against Jews in the EU 2018

Version
1.0.0
Resource Type
Dataset
Creator
  • European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), Vienna, Austria
Publication Date
2019-04-08
Contributor
  • Ipsos MORI, London Institute for Jewish Policy Research (JPR), London (Data Collector)
Language
German
Classification
  • ZA:
    • Legal system, Legislation, Law
    • Society, Culture
  • CESSDA Topic Classification:
    • Social behaviour and attitudes
    • Crime
    • Social exclusion
Description
  • Abstract

    The survey provides comparable data on the perceived extent and nature of antisemitism across a number of selected EU Member States, whether it is manifested as hate crime, hate speech, discrimination or in any other form that undermines Jewish people’s feelings of safety and security. The survey was commissioned by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA). It follows up on the agency’s first survey, conducted in seven countries in 2012. The overall objectives of FRA’s second survey on discrimination and hate crime against Jews in the European Union (EU) are 1) to collect comparable data in the selected EU Member States and thereby contributing to the assessment and further development of policies that aim to protect the fundamental rights of Jewish people living in the EU; 2) to identify changes over time with respect to the results of the first survey on discrimination and hate crime against Jews in 2012; 3) to further develop research methodologies for surveying hard-to-reach groups using online survey tools; 4) to deliver FRA’s key stakeholders research evidence that can be used to raise awareness of fundamental rights and address gaps in the protection of rights. The 2018 survey collected data from 16,395 self-identified Jewish respondents (aged 16 or over) in 12 EU Member States – Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. These Member States are home to over 96 % of the EU’s estimated Jewish population. The survey collected data through an open online survey and was available for respondents to complete for seven weeks in May–June 2018. The survey asked respondents about their opinions on trends in antisemitism, antisemitism as a problem in everyday life, personal experiences of antisemitic incidents, witnessing antisemitic incidents and worries about becoming a victim of an antisemitic attack. The survey also provides data on the extent to which respondents consider antisemitic acts against the Jewish community – such as vandalism of Jewish sites or antisemitic messages in the broadcast media or on the internet – to be a problem in the countries. The survey collected data on the effects of antisemitism on respondents’ daily behaviour and their feelings of safety, and about any actions they take due to security fears. The questions about personal experiences of specific forms of harassment or physical violence were followed up with questions concerning the details of such incidents, including their frequency, the number and characteristics of perpetrators, and the reporting of the incident to any organisation or institution. The survey collected data about personal experiences of feeling discriminated against on different grounds and in various areas of everyday life – for example, at work, school, or when using specific services. The survey followed up on respondents’ discrimination experiences with questions concerning the reporting of incidents and the reasons for non-reporting. The survey also explored the level of rights awareness regarding antidiscrimination legislation, victim support organisations and knowledge of any legislation concerning the trivialisation or denial of the Holocaust. In addition, the survey collected socio-demographic data, such as respondents´ gender and age, educational background, employment status, and income. Topics: 1. Rights awareness, perceptions and attitudes: perception of crime level, unemployment racism, antisemitism, immigration, government corruption, and intolerance towards Muslims as a problem in the country; increase vs. decrease of racism, antisemitism and intolerance towards Muslims in the country; perception of antisemitic acts against the Jewish community as a problem in the country (antisemitic graffiti, desecration of Jewish cemeteries, vandalism of Jewish buildings or institutions, expressions of hostility towards Jews in the street or other public places, antisemitism in the media, in political life, and on the internet including social media; increase vs. decrease of the aforementioned problems; frequency of personally experienced antisemitic comments of non-Jewish people (Jews have too much power in the country, Jews exploit Holocaust victimhood for their own purposes, the Holocaust is a myth or has been exaggerated, Israelis behave ‘like Nazis’ towards the Palestinians, world a better place without Israel, Jews are not capable of integrating into national society, interests of Jews in the country are very different from the interests of the rest of the population, Jews bring antisemitism on themselves); locations or occasions where the respondent heard or saw these comments; consideration of a non-Jewish person to be antisemitic due to the aforementioned comments and the following behavior: always notes who is Jewish among his/her acquaintances, criticizes Israel, does not consider Jews living in the country to be country national, would not marry a Jew, thinks that Jews have recognizable features, supports boycotts of Israel or Israelis; impact of the Arab-Israeli conflict on the feeling of safety as a Jewish person in the country; feeling of being accused or blamed for anything done by the Israeli government because the respondent is Jewish; rating of the national government’s combating antisemitism; adequate responds of the government to the security needs of Jewish communities; parent of a child or children who are attending school; child/children are in a Jewish school vs. a non-Jewish school; reasons for choosing a Jewish school respectively choosing a non-Jewish school; frequency of avoidance behavior because the respondent does not feel safe as a Jew (visiting Jewish events of sites, certain places or locations in the local area or neighbourhood); considerations to emigrate from the country in the past five years due to security fears; active preparations for emigrating and preferred country; movement to another area or neighbourhood due to security fears; considerations for moving to another area and active preparations. 2. Harassment: personal experiences of specific forms of harassment or physical violence and their frequency in the past 5 years and in the last 12 months (offensive or threatening emails or text messages, offensive, threatening or silent phone calls, following in a threatening way, offensive or threatening comments to the respondent in person, offensive gestures or staring inappropriately, posted offensive comments about the respondent in the internet, including social media); experiences due to antisemitism; most serious incident of antisemitic harassment from the past 5 years; characteristics of this most serious incident (antisemitic language was used, respondent could be identified as Jewish, happened on the Sabbath or a Jewish holiday, happened on significant date for offender, antisemitic symbolbs were used, occurred at/near a Jewish site or event, offender had a reputation for similar acts, happened during period of tension or conflict in Israel, something else happenend that made it antisemitic, not sure whether it was antisemitic); the number and characteristics of perpetrators; location where this incident happened; reporting of the incident to the police or to any other organization; kind of other organization (a member of Parliament, a local government councilor, a Jewish authority figure, a Jewish organisation specialising in security and/or antisemitism, another jewish organization, someone in authority at the workplace, school or university, the media, a victim support, other organization); reasons for non-reporting to the police. 3. Experiences of vandalism and violence: frequency of experiences of vandalism (for example with graffiti) in the past 5 years and in the past 12 months at own home, car, or other property; vandalism incident in the past 5 years due to antisemitism; number of vandalism incidents due to antisemitism; frequency of experiences of physical attacks (on the street, on public transport, at the workplace or anywhere else) in the past 5 years, and in the past 12 months; physical attack due to antisemitism; number of physical attacks due to antisemitism; characteristics of the most serious incident; the number and characteristics of perpetrators; location where this incident happened; reporting of the incident to the police or to any other organization; kind of other organisation; reasons for non-reporting to the police; personally witnesses any of the following types of antisemitic incidents in the country in the last 12 months (other Jew(s) being verbally insulted or harassed, being physically attacked, or being both verbally insulted or harassed and physically attacked); worries about becoming a victim of antisemitic verbal insults or harassment and of antisemitic physical attack in the next 12 months; experiences of family members, relatives or close friends of verbal insults or harassment and physical attacks; harassment or physical attack of family members due to antisemitism; worries that in the next 12 months a family member will be a victim of antisemitic verbal insults or harassment and physical attacks in a public place. 4. Rights awareness: awareness of a national las that forbids discrimination based on origin or religion in the following situations (when applying for a job, entering a shop, restaurant, baror clus, using healthcare services, renting or buying a flat or a house); knowledge of any authority or organisation(s) that provide support or advice to people who have been discriminated against; kind of authority or organization (a member of Parliament, a local government councilor, Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC), a Jewish authority figure, a Jewish organisation specialising in security and/or antisemitism, another jewish organization, someone in authority at the workplace, school or university, the media, a victim support, other organization); knowledge of any legislation concerning the trivialisation or denial of the Holocaust, and against incitement to violence or hatred against Jews. 5. Experiences of discrimination in the past 12 months: personally felt discriminated against for any of the following reasons: skin colour, ethnic origin or immigrant background, religion or belief, age, sex, disability, sexual orientation, gender identity, for another reason); respondent looked for a job, worked, looked for a house or apartment to rent or buy, used public or private healthcare services, has been in education (respondent himself or his children); experience of discrimination for any reason in the aforementioned situations; most serious antisemitic discrimination in the last 12 months; reporting of the incident to the police or to any other organization; kind of other organisation; reasons for non-reporting the incident; the respondent can be recognized externally as a Jew, e.g. by wearing a kippa; avoidance of external signs of recognition as a Jew in public and reason for this avoidance; restrictions experienced at the workplace or at school and university in the exercise of religious practices and customs and in taking time off for an important religious holiday; perception of demands of non-Jewish people for prohibition of circumcision and traditional slaughter in the country; extent of problem of the prohibition of circumcision and traditional slaughter for the respondent´s Jewish identity. Demography and background of respondent: sex; age; marital status; household size; number of children in the household unter 18 years; highest level of education (ISCED); employment or school or university attendance in the past 12 months; current employment status; full-time or part-time employment; degree of urbanisation of the living area; estimated proportion of Jewish people in the local area; basis of self-identification as Jewish (by religion, ethnicity, parentage, heritage, culture, upbringing, or by something else); self-assessment of religiousity; kind of Jewish practices the respondent personally observes (attends Passover Seder most or all years, does not switch on lights on the Sabbath, attends synagogue weekly or more often, eats only kosher meat at home, lights candles most Friday nights, fast on Yom Kippur most or all years, none of these); characterisation of the Jewish upbringing as a child and of the current Jewish identity; importance of different items for Jewish identity (believing in God, sharing Jewish festivals with the family, supporting Israel, Jewish culture, combating antisemitism, remebering the Holocaust, donating funds to charity, feeling part of the Jewish people); self-assessment of Jewish identity (scale); attachment to the region, to the European Union, and to Israel; level of trust in the national parliament, the national legal system, and in the European Parliament; respondent has been to Israel as a visitor or on holiday, has lived in Isreal for more than one year, was born in Israel, or has never been to Isreal; family or relatives living in Isreal; financial situation of the household; country of birth (respondent and spouse/partner); respondent, mother, father, spouse/partner are Jewish by birth, Jewish by conversion, or not Jewish; respondent is Ashkenazi, Sephardi, mixed, or other; source of awareness of the survey; participation in a similar survey in 2012; citizenship. Additionally coded was: ID; country; year of survey; weight, tertiary education completed with DE values imputation.
Temporal Coverage
  • 2018-05-09 / 2018-06-28
Geographic Coverage
  • Austria (AT)
  • Belgium (BE)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Spain (ES)
  • France (FR)
  • United Kingdom (GB)
  • Hungary (HU)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Poland (PL)
  • Sweden (SE)
Sampled Universe
Self-identified Jewish population aged 16 or over living in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom
Sampling
opt-in sample (voluntary participation)
Collection Mode
  • an open online survey
Data and File Information
  • Number of Variables: 396
Availability
Delivery
C - Data and documents are only released for academic research and teaching after the data depositor’s written authorization. For this purpose the Data Archive obtains a written permission with specification of the user and the analysis intention.
Rights
All metadata from GESIS DBK are available free of restriction under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. However, GESIS requests that you actively acknowledge and give attribution to all metadata sources, such as the data providers and any data aggregators, including GESIS. For further information see https://dbk.gesis.org/dbksearch/guidelines.asp
Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA7491 (Type: ZA-No.)
Publications
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights): Second Survey on discrimination and hate crime against Jews in EU Member States: Technical report Vienna: 2019
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2018), Experiences and perceptions of antisemitism: Second survey on discrimination and hate crime against Jews in the EU – Questionnaire, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2018/2nd-survey-discrimination-hate-crime-against-jews
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2019), Experiences and perceptions of antisemitism - Second survey on discrimination and hate crime against Jews in the EU – Summary, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2019/experiences-and-perceptions-antisemitism-second-survey-discrimination-and-hate
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2018), Discrimination and hate crime against Jews in EU Member States: experiences and perceptions of antisemitism, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2018/2nd-survey-discrimination-hate-crime-against-jews

Update Metadata: 2019-04-25 | Issue Number: 5 | Registration Date: 2019-04-08

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), Vienna, Austria (2019): Survey on Discrimination and Hate Crime against Jews in the EU 2018. Version: 1.0.0. GESIS Datenarchiv. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.4232/1.13264