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Open-ended answers to cognitive probes - from the CICOM study

Resource Type
  • Behr, Dorothée (GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences)
Publication Date
  • ZA:
    • Government, Political System
    • Political Attitudes and Behavior
    • Society, Culture
  • Abstract

    Answers to cognitive probes implemented in (cross-national) web surveys ("web probing") (1) Replication of closed-ended items on attitudes towards immigrants from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), addition of a follow-up probe: Immigrants increase crime rates. Immigrants are generally good for Germany’s economy. Immigrants take jobs away from people who were born in Germany. Immigrants improve German society by bringing in new ideas and cultures. Probe after each item (split): Which type of immigrants were you thinking of when you answered the question? The study and results are described in detail here: Braun, Michael, Dorothée Behr, and Lars Kaczmirek. 2013. "Assessing cross-national equivalence of measures of xenophobia: evidence from probing in web surveys." International Journal of Public Opinion Research 25 (3): 383-395. doi: (2) Replication of item on civil disobedience from the ISSP, addition of a follow-up probe: How important is it that citizens may engage in acts of civil disobedience when they oppose government actions? (Not at all important 1 ... Very important 7) Probe: What ideas do you associate with the phrase "civil disobedience"? Please give examples. The study and results are described in detail here: Behr, Dorothée, Michael Braun, Lars Kaczmirek, and Wolfgang Bandilla. 2014. "Item comparability in cross-national surveys: results from asking probing questions in cross-national web surveys about attitudes towards civil disobedience." Quality & Quantity 48 (1): 127-148. doi:
Temporal Coverage
  • 2011-01 / 2011-01
Geographic Coverage
  • Denmark / DK
  • Spain / ES
  • Germany / DE
Sampled Universe
Respondents from the online access panel respondi in Germany, and their international partners in Spain and Denmark (citizens of the respective countries aged 18-65).
Quota sample: A net sample of about 500 respondents in each country (Spain, Denmark)/region (East/West Germany) was targeted; quotas for age (18–30, 31–50, and 51–65 years), gender, and education (lower vs. higher education) were used. Details in the afore mentioned publications.
Collection Mode
    • Fixed form self-administered questionnaire: Web-based
Data and File Information
    • File Name:
      File Format: application/zip
      File Size: 411951
      Data Fingerprint: 91497a1335ad69cb8c1d960405394327
      Method Fingerprint: MD5
    • File Name:
      File Format: application/zip
      File Size: 175760
      Data Fingerprint: 1d282ea714228052799bf94344b094fa
      Method Fingerprint: MD5
Free Access (without Registration)
CC BY 4.0
  • Schonlau, M, Gweon H, Wenemark, M. Automatic classification of open-ended questions: check-all-that-apply questions, Social Science Computer Review (accepted).;

Update Metadata: 2019-09-30 | Issue Number: 2 | Registration Date: 2019-06-27

Behr, Dorothée (2019): Open-ended answers to cognitive probes - from the CICOM study. Version: 1. GESIS Datenarchiv. Dataset.