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Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field

Resource Type
  • Balafoutas, Loukas (University of Innsbruck)
  • Nikiforakis, Nikos (New York University Abu Dhabi)
  • Rockenbach, Bettina (University of Cologne)
Publication Date
  • Abstract

    Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals’ willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment,individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation.
Geographic Coverage
  • Deutschland / DE
Sampled Universe
Collection Mode
    • Beobachtung
    • Interview
Data and File Information
    • File Name: DIPF_All_data_experiment.xlsx
      File Format: application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet
      File Size: 93326
      Data Fingerprint: 6075b9a260307c7e4445ae276d0f56bc
      Method Fingerprint: MD5
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      File Format: text/x-stata-syntax
      File Size: 1699
      Data Fingerprint: 1b937d429f985e65a2c9034938337d86
      Method Fingerprint: MD5
    • File Name:
      File Format: text/x-stata-syntax
      File Size: 380
      Data Fingerprint: c6dd196aa8fcf0f025d8c8507cb50a98
      Method Fingerprint: MD5
    • File Name: DIPF_survey_data.dta
      File Format: application/x-stata
      File Size: 14787
      Data Fingerprint: 63ee9adbe2043e3944a41f7f6c5eb502
      Method Fingerprint: MD5
    • File Name: DIPF_Skript_Schauspieler.pdf
      File Format: application/pdf
      File Size: 150357
      Data Fingerprint: 7a22b25c973c69e0b4ffdea15d629ebd
      Method Fingerprint: MD5
Eingeschränkter Zugang
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Update Metadata: 2019-09-30 | Issue Number: 2 | Registration Date: 2019-07-02

Balafoutas, Loukas; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Rockenbach, Bettina (2014): Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field. Version: 1. GESIS Datenarchiv. Dataset.