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Data Handbook on the Development of Science; Government funding of science in Germany from 1850 to 1975.

Version
2.0.0
Resource Type
Dataset
Creator
  • Pfetsch, Frank R.
Publication Date
2010-10-28
Contributor
  • F.R. Pfetsch (Data Collector)
Language
German
Classification
  • ZA:
    • Historical Studies Data
Description
  • Abstract

    Data were collected on governmental financing of science in Germany. To enable interpreting governmental education expenditures groups were formed among others regarding department or aim of financing. Time series of science statistics for the period of 1850 to 1975 has been published. The main question of the study was: How was it possible, that Germany has become a ´worldcentre of science´ during the 19th century? This Data Manual on Scientific Development (=„Datenhandbuch zur Wissenschaftsentwicklung“) is related to the study “Entwicklung der Wissenschaftspolitik in Deutschland” (=Development of science policy in Germany) ( see Pfetsch, F.R., 1974: “Zur Entwicklung der Wissenschaftspolitik in Deutschland“ (= On the development of science policy in Germany)1750 to 1914. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, Study-No.: ZA8472). In this study, scientific statistical time series for the years 1850 to 1914 were published. Central issues for the study have been: How was it possible that Germany in the 19th century could develop into a world center of science and therefore became a model for many countries? How had Germany arranged it as an underdeveloped country at that time, to supersede the technological dominance of the most advanced industrial nation – Great Britain – and then later influenced on its part on the development of this country? State science policy is reflected in the spending on science and technology. The structure of official spending shows the preferential order of political decisions. For the period from 1850 to 1914 the government budgets of the largest federal states and for the German Empire has been checked through official expenditure on science. The term ‘expenditure on science’ means official expenditures on universities and non-university research institutes, as well as on other scientific undertakings, for example scientific expeditions. As total budget the ordinary and extraordinary administrative expenses of the federal states and of the German Empire were taken respectively. Thus for all states the net principle has been applied (i.e. all the state’s effective expenditures has been taken into account without balance sheet or income) and it has been calculated in current prices. Via the Data Manual, published in 1985, the historical statistical time series on expenses for science until the 70s in the 20th century are documented. For the first time information for a very long period (1850 to 1975) has been collected and processed by using a consistent methodology. The Data Manual presents an extract from the area of possible input-indicators on scientific development. Topics: Variables German ´Reich´ and its states - Gross National Product (GDP) in billion Mark/Reichsmark - Population in million - Total budget in billion Mark/Reichsmark - Public expenditure on sciences in billion Mark/Reichsmark - Public expenditure on sciences in Percent of the GDP - Public expenditure on sciences per capita in Mark/Reichsmark - Public expenditure on sciences in percent of the total budget in addition concerning the states of the German Reich: - Cultural expenditure in million Mark/Reichsmark - Expenditure on science in percent of cultural expenditure Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the federal states - Gross National Product (GDP) in billion DM - Population in million - Total budget in billion DM - Public expenditure on sciences in billion DM - Public expenditure on sciences in Percent of the GDP - Public expenditure on sciences per capita in DM - Public expenditure on sciences in percent of the total budget in addition concerning the states of the Federal Republic of Germany: - Cultural expenditure in million DM - Expenditure on science in percent of cultural expenditure Downloadable time series in the search- and downloadsystem HISTAT (Topic: Education and Science ( = Bildung und Wissenschaft) ) Information: HISTAT is offered only in German language. The downloadable time series in HISTAT are a selection of the aggregated data tables in the data manual. The long-term development of all collected science-relevant budget items on administrative unit level are archived at the Data-Archive under the study number ZA8051 and can be ordered using the “the general order form for archive data” (see: http://www.gesis.org/en/services/data/retrieval-data-access/data-archive-service/). Information on the data-version: Version 2.0.0: Date of change: 28.10.2010. Completely reviesed: D; Completely new included subdivisions: A, C. Information on the contents of the subdivisions, please see the list below. Data Tables in HISTAT: A. Übersichten: Ausgewählte Strukturtabellen (Angaben in Prozent) A.01a Entwicklung der Staatsausgaben in % des Volkseinkommens und des Bruttosozialprodukts (1872-1975) A.02 Wissenschaftsausgaben nach institutioneller und Projektförderung (1870-1975) A.03a Gesamte Wissenschaftsausgaben nach Zielbereichen (1870-1975) A.03b Wissenschaftsausgaben des Reiches bzw. Bundes (Zentrale) nach Zielbereichen (1920-1975) A.04 Anteile national und international orientierter Wissenschaftsausgaben der politischen Zentrale (1875-1975) B. Summe der Wissenschaftsausgaben nach Gebietskörperschaften B.01a Summe der Wissenschaftsausgaben im Deutschen Reich (Zentrale) nach Gebietskörperschaften, in Mill. Mark/Reichsmark (1850-1949) B.01b Summe der Wissenschaftsausgaben in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland nach Gebietskörperschaften, in Mill. DM (1950-1975) B.02a Deutsches Reich, Wissenschaftsausgaben der Gebietskörperschaften: Verhältnis zum BSP, zum Volkseinkommen, zur Bevölkerung und zum Etat (1850-1949) B.02b Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Wissenschaftsausgaben der Gebietskörperschaften: Verhältnis zum BSP, zum Volkseinkommen, zur Bevölkerung und zum Etat (1950-1975) C. Summe aller Wissenschaftsausgaben nach Untergruppen (Werte im 5 – Jahres – Rhythmus) C.01 Untergruppe 1: Summe aller Wissenschaftsausgaben, absolut, Institutionsbereiche (1870-1975) C.02 Untergruppe 2: Summe aller Wissenschaftsausgaben, absolut, Funktionsbereiche (1870-1975) C.03 Untergruppe 3: Summe aller Wissenschaftsausgaben, absolut, Disziplingruppen (1870-1975) C.04 Untergruppe 4: Summe aller Wissenschaftsausgaben, absolut, wissenschaftliche Aktivitäten (1870-1975) C.05 Untergruppe 5: Summe aller Wissenschaftsausgaben, absolut, Wissenschaftsziele (1870-1975) C.06a Untergruppe 6: Summe aller Wissenschaftsaufgaben, Etatwerte in 1000 M/RM, national-international, Deutsches Reich (Zentrale) (1871-1942) C.06b Untergruppe 6: Summe aller Wissenschaftsaufgaben, national-international, Etatwerte in 1000 M/RM, Preußen (1915-1941) C.06c Untergruppe 6: Summe aller Wissenschaftsaufgaben, Etatwerte in 1000 DM, national-international, Bundesrepublik Deutschland (1950-1975)
Temporal Coverage
  • 1850 / 1975
Geographic Coverage
  • Historical German lands (-1871) (DQDE)
  • German Reich (1871-1945) (DXDE)
    The Weimar Republic
  • Germany (DE)
Sampled Universe
Time period covered: 1850 to 1975. Research area: Germany in its respective borders of the German Reich, of the Weimarer Republik and of the Federal Republic of Germany. The German Reich was differentiated according to its states: Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Baden and Württemberg; The Federal Republic of Germany was differentiated according to its 11 federal states.
Collection Mode
  • Evaluation of official statistics and archive materials.
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Text Unit
    Number of Units: 2450
    Number of Variables: 400
Availability
Download
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
Rights
All metadata from GESIS DBK are available free of restriction under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. However, GESIS requests that you actively acknowledge and give attribution to all metadata sources, such as the data providers and any data aggregators, including GESIS. For further information see https://dbk.gesis.org/dbksearch/guidelines.asp
Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA8051 (Type: ZA-No.)
Relations
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.4232/1.8051
Publications
  • Pfetsch, F.R.: Zur Entwicklung der Wissenschaftspolitik in Deutschland 1750-1914. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1974.
  • Pfetsch, F.R.: Datenhandbuch zur Wissenschaftsentwicklung. Die staatliche Finanzierung der Wissenschaft in Deutschland 1850 - 1975. Köln: Zentrum für historische Sozialforschung, 1985.

Update Metadata: 2019-02-12 | Issue Number: 76 | Registration Date: 2011-01-05

Pfetsch, Frank R. (2010): Datenhandbuch zur Wissenschaftsentwicklung; Staatliche Finanzierung der Wissenschaft in Deutschland 1850 – 1975. Version: 2.0.0. GESIS Datenarchiv. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.4232/1.10145