National Surveys on Energy and Environment [United States]

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Borick, Christopher (Muhlenberg College. Institute of Public Opinion)
  • Mills, Sarah (University of Michigan)
  • Rabe, Barry (University of Michigan)
Publication Date
Free Keywords
environmental attitudes; beliefs; opinion poll; energy policy; public opinion; renewable energy; energy; environmental policy; climate change; global warming
  • Abstract

    The National Surveys on Energy and Environment (NSEE) is an on-going biannual national opinion survey on energy and climate policy. Launched in 2008, over time the NSEE has covered topics such as public policy approaches to address climate change including federal, state, and international action; energy policies such as cap-and-trade, carbon taxes, renewable energy requirements, vehicle emissions standards, and many more; and knowledge and attitudes about global warming, climate adaptation, fracking, and geoengineering. From 2008-2012 the survey was called the “National Survey of American Public Opinion on Climate Change” (NSAPOCC); starting in 2013 the survey was renamed to the “National Surveys on Energy and Environment” (NSEE).

    NSEE was co-founded by professor Barry Rabe at the University of Michigan and professor Christopher Borick at Muhlenberg College, and is fielded by the Muhlenberg College Institute of Public Opinion. For more information about the NSEE, contact

    The NSEE is committed to transparency in all facets of our work, including timely release and posting of data from each survey wave. A grant from the Office of the Provost at the University of Michigan has allowed us to provide online access to earlier waves of the NSEE, including frequency tables, survey instruments, and datasets. Users can see a list of topics covered by the NSEE, and search for questions by text, variable name, or variable category on CLOSUP's website.

    Although the datasets are listed by survey wave, the NSEE is a valuable source of longitudinal public-opinion data on climate change and energy policy. Many questions have been asked over multiple waves, including questions about belief in global warming that have been asked in every wave of the NSEE. Consult the NSEE Crosswalk to see which questions have been asked in prior and subsequent waves of the NSEE. To facilitate longitudinal analysis, the NSEE datasets use a longitudinal variable naming scheme to facilitate longitudinal analysis. Variable names include two parts: a subject category for the question, and a description of the contents of the question. When a question has been asked with the same text and response options over multiple waves, the same variable name will be used in each dataset. For more information on the longitudinal naming scheme users should consult the codebooks for the datasets.

  • Weighting

    Weight variables are provided for each dataset. Data are weighted by gender, age, race, income, and education, to reflect population characteristics of the United States as reported by the United States Census Bureau.
  • Technical Information

    Presence of Common Scales: Several likert-type scales were used.
Temporal Coverage
  • 2008-09-02 / 2015-09-24
    Time Period: Tue Sep 02 00:00:00 EDT 2008--Thu Sep 24 00:00:00 EDT 2015 (2008-Present)
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Adult (age 18 or older) residents of the United StatesSmallest Geographic Unit: State
The NSEE is conducted as a telephone survey adult (age 18 or older) residents of the United States. In 2008, only landlines were included in the sampling frame, starting in 2009 both landline and cell phones have been included in the sampling frames.  See individual waves for more detailed sampling information. 
Collection Mode
  • computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI)~~

  • Cites
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2010.00719.x (Text)
  • Cites
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2018.03.002 (Text)
  • Cites
    DOI: (Text)
  • Cites
    DOI: 10.3998/mpub.9526877 (Text)
  • Borick, Christopher P., and Barry G. Rabe. “A Reason to Believe: Examining the Factors That Determine Individual Views on Global Warming*.” Social Science Quarterly 91, no. 3 (July 15, 2010): 777–800.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2010.00719.x (DOI)
  • Edwards, Michelle L. “Public Perceptions of Energy Policies: Predicting Support, Opposition, and Nonsubstantive Responses.” Energy Policy 117 (June 2018): 348–57.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.enpol.2018.03.002 (DOI)
  • Meyer, Andrew. “Elite Influence on Climate Change Skepticism: Evidence from Close Gubernatorial Elections.” SSRN, September 14, 2018.
    • ID: (DOI)
  • Mills, Sarah, Barry Rabe, and Christopher Borick. “Strong Public Support for State-Level Policies to Address Climate Change,” n.d.
  • Rouse, Stella, and Ashley Ross. “Millennials to the Rescue? Climate Change (Dis)Belief in the United States and the Future of Environmental Policy.” In The Politics of Millennials: Political Beliefs and Policy Preferences of America’s Most Diverse Generation. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2018.
    • ID: 10.3998/mpub.9526877 (DOI)
  • Simon, Nicholas, and Sarah Mills. “A Majority of Americans Support Net Energy Metering,” n.d.

Update Metadata: 2019-09-15 | Issue Number: 1 | Registration Date: 2019-09-15