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Phases of Crisis between the School System and the Public Employment System

Resource Type
  • Müller, Detelf K.
  • Zymek, Bernd
  • Küpper, Erika
  • Priebe, Longin
Publication Date
  • ZA:
    • Historical Studies Data
  • Abstract

    “During the 19th and 20th century there were repeated discrepancies concerning the claims of validity of the school graduates and university graduates and the provided professional positions. This situation of overcrowding came together with a discussion on overcrowding, which had a high importance in the controlling process of the educational, entitlement and career system. This situation of overcrowding and the discussion on it is summarized by the term ‘qualification crisis’. (…) Different historical phases of qualification crisis are analyzed in order to get insights on the importance and functions of the educational system within the social process.” (p. 37) The authors work with an analysis model which makes the following restrictions: 1) Qualification crises are defined as the reduction of the employment value of school and university degrees regarding higher qualification possibilities and career chances within a certain time period. There is no content-related discussion of educational qualifications. 2) In this study only entitlements from higher schools, full-time vocational schools and universities are taken into account. School system and public professional career system were closely linked through an institutionalized authorization system. For being hired in public services certain formal school degrees were required. Therefor school degrees had a significant importance got later career perspectives. 3) Only the public sector is considered as a possible working field for higher qualifications. “The public sector in Germany is traditionally the biggest employer for occupations for higher qualifications, in some fields even a monopolist. His behavior is therefore decisive fir realization chances for formal degrees.” (p. 38). The judicial sector is a classical occupational field for academics in Prussia and for public services. Therefore this sector is chosen to be a narrower subject of the study. The analysis is not exclusively on occupation plans for judges and prosecutors but takes all qualitative and quantitative changes in the studies of law as well as in alternative careers into account. In summary, the following can be stated: The reform of the Prussian educational system was complex attempt to control public occupation that were carried out on different educational levels and aimed to meet the increasing demand of employees with higher education and academic occupations that came with the social changes within that time. Policy instruments were a reform if the structure of the higher school education system, a restructuring of the entitlement system and career system in public services as well as changes in education, examination and hiring conditions. The result of this politically intended situation of overcrowd and the connected political discussion was a decline in growth rates of pupils in higher schools, high school graduates, university students, trainees and assessors. One main reason for this was the reorientation of parts of the population towards lower career ambitions. Data tables in HISTAT: Table 1: Educational chances of 10,5 to 19,5 year old male population in Prussia, 1867-1914. Table 2: Male pupils of all age groups and all grades of public higher schools for general education in Prussia, 1867-1914 Table 3: Junior students of public higher schools for general education in Prussia, 1867-1914 Table 4: Higher Pupils of public higher schools for general education in Prussia, 1867-1914 Table 5: High school graduates of public higher schools for general education in Prussia, 1867-1914 Table 6: Career perspectives of law students in Prussia, 1860-1910
Temporal Coverage
  • 1867 / 1914
Geographic Coverage
  • Historical German lands (-1871) (DQDE)
  • German Reich (1871-1945) (DXDE)
Collection Mode
  • List of sources: Data on the age cohorts was found in the following official publications: - Prussian statistics. Official source work. Issued by the royal statistical office. - Monthlies of the statistic of the German Reich, different years. Edited by the royal statistical office (Statistics of the German Reich) - Statistics of the German Reich. Edited by the royal statistical office.
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Text Unit
    Number of Units: 48
    Number of Variables: 57
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA8193 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • Müller, Detlef K.; Zymek, Bernd Modellentwicklung zur Analyse von Krisenphasen im Verhältnis von Schulsystem und staatlichem Beschäftigungssystem. In: Zeitschrift für Pädagogik. 14. Beiheft: Historische Pädagogik. Weinheim: Beltz Verlag, S.37-77, 1977.

Update Metadata: 2019-02-12 | Issue Number: 230 | Registration Date: 2010-07-23

Müller, Detelf K.; Zymek, Bernd; Küpper, Erika; Priebe, Longin (2007): Krisenphasen im Verhältnis von Schulsystem und staatlichem Beschäftigungssystem. Preußen 1867-1914. Version: 1.0.0. GESIS Datenarchiv. Dataset.