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The German Pig-Iron Industry between 1871 and 1913. A quantitative historical Study

Resource Type
  • Krengel, Jochen (Fachhochschule des Bundes für öffentliche Verwaltung, Berlin)
Publication Date
  • ZA:
    • Historical Studies Data
  • Abstract

    Within its sector the pig iron industry needs to be differentiated economically especially from the streel industry because there is much interdependence on an operational level. After the systematical list of goods for the contemporary industry statistics (edition 1970, Stuttgart und Mainz, S. 37 f.) the furnace industry (synonymous term for pig iron industry) is responsible for the production of pig iron and ferroalloys but not for the production of pig steel. This definition is based on metallurgic and technological reasons. Pig iron is an intermediate product in the transformation process between iron ore and roll steel. Pig iron itself cannot be rolled or forges therefor it is not a usable product in the terms of the steel industry. Another important differentiation needs to be made in contrast to the sector of foundries; this distinction is not that easy. In terms of metallurgy pig iron is not an entirely new product after repeated fusing and shedding in casting molds. But again an economic distinction can be made: pig iron is an intermediate product which is an economically usable finished product only after fusing. The pig iron industry can therefore be defined as an industry which produces pure primary products for foundries and steelworks. The geographical survey area is the German customs territory which basically includes the German Reich and the grand duchy of Luxemburg. Concerning the temporal differentiation there is a field of tension between political and economic history. 1871 was the year if the foundation of the Reich but economically this is no special date. A more sensible start from an economic point of view would be 1873 as a peak in industrial expansion. But 1871 is a very commonly used date for starting an investigation period of the German Reich. So for pragmatic reason we use 1871 as the starting year. The study is subdivided into two main topics. In the first part the growth of pig iron industry is decomposed in its components and explained in an inter-sectoral way using a neoclassical production model of growth. The necessary inter-sectoral analysis of this growth is undertaken in the second part of the study. Register of tables in HISTAT: 01 Trade union density of pig iron workers 1907-1913 02 Development of pig iron production in tons 03 Number of factories and production per factory in tons. 04 Use of iron ore, slag and scrap metal in tons 05 Use of limestones and other aggregates in tons 06 Comparison of consumption between charcoal and coke in melting a ton of pig iron 1881-1896 07 Coke consumption per ton of pig iron in the four different governmental districts of the Rhine province, 1871-1909 08 Coke consumption per ton of pig iron in chosen governmental districts of Hanover Province, 1871-1905 09 Coke consumption per ton of pig iron in the governmental district Oppeln 10 Coke consumption of three Prussian provinces and in the customs territory per ton of pig iron 11 Use of coke in tons 12 Use of railway transport services in million ton kilometers 13 Labor input 14 Development of labor productivity and capital intensity 15 Furnace statistics 16 Capital Stock (= capacity in 1000 tons). 17 Value of production in 1000 Mark. 18 Development of the German average prices for 1 ton of pig iron 19 Development of German average prices of iron ore for 1 ton of ore 20 Costs of ore in 1000 Mark 21 Development of German lime prices for 1 ton of limestone 22 Surcharge costs in 1000 Mark 23 Development of German coke prices (Dortmund-Essener exchange trade price for 1 ton of furnace coke) 24 Costs of energy in 1000 Mark 25 Material transport costs per ton of iron pig in Mark 26 Costs of transport in 1000 Mark 27 Average yearly wages of furnace workers in the Rhineland and Westphalia in Mark 28 Average yearly wages of furnace workers in the government district of Oppeln in Mark 29 Average yearly per capita income in of employees in the pig iron industry in Mark 30 Wage costs in 1000 Mark 31Development of raw profit in 1000 Mark 32 Development of per-unit profit 33 Cost structure of the pig iron industry in 1000 Mark absolute values and relative to the value of production 34 Development of total factor productivity 40 Share of the value of the pig iron industry of the GDP in market prices of 1913, absolute in million Mark and in percent. 41 Share of employees in the pig iron industry of the total number of employees in percent. 42 Pig iron production by types in tons 54 Most important competition prices for German foundry pig iron in Mark per ton 1866-1913 55 Most important competition prices for German steel pig iron in Mark per ton 1887-1913
Temporal Coverage
  • 1871 / 1913
Geographic Coverage
  • German Reich (1871-1945) (DXDE)
Collection Mode
  • Official and half-official sources, association statistics, reports from the chamber of commerce, scientific publications, statistics of the royal statistical office, regional studies
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Text Unit
    Number of Units: 43
    Number of Variables: 103
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA8196 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • Jochen Krengel: Die deutsche Roheisenindustrie 1871-1913. Eine quantitativ-historische Untersuchung. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot 1983.

Update Metadata: 2017-12-29 | Issue Number: 73 | Registration Date: 2010-07-23

Krengel, Jochen (2007): Die deutsche Roheisenindustrie 1871-1913. Eine quantitativ-historische Untersuchung. Version: 1.0.0. GESIS Datenarchiv. Dataset.