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The Income Structure in several German States between 1874 and 1913

Version
1.0.0
Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
Creator
  • Müller, Heinz
  • Geisenberger, Siegfried
Publication Date
2005
Language
German
Classification
  • ZA:
    • Historical Studies Data
Description
  • Abstract

    Part A. Heinz Müller: The income structure in several German states, 1874-1913. The entire material of this study was developed by the institute for regional politics and transportation science at the University of Freiburg. The first part of the study deals with an analysis of the income structure (=personnel income distribution) in chosen German states for the period from 1873 to 1913. Analysis of income structures can be planned and realized with different aims and with the use of different methods. The following structuring of income recipients is most commonly used: a) By sources of income b) By the income of sociologically important recipient groups c) By income level The structuring by income sources addresses a registration of the functional income distribution. This is instructive but difficult to carry out. For example it is hardly possible to subdivide the income resulting from entrepreneurial activity in the structural components as this term includes employer´s salary, basic pension for entrepreneurs, enterprise interests and entrepreneurial profit. Even theoretically it is difficult to subdivide income resulting from entrepreneurial activity in these components but in the practical implementation this division faces insurmountable difficulties. On the other hand such a structuring is an important perquisite for a proper analysis of income sources especially in the area of agriculture. Another criteria used for classification is the division by sociologically important recipient groups. The aim of such an analysis could be to estimate the share of specific groups of persons in the national income and the changes that are taking place in the process of economic development. Alternatively such an analysis can be based on a division in economic sectors; one could estimate for example the share of agriculture or services in the national income and its changes over time. Also this procedure allows interesting conclusions on social and economic development of the national economy. The third and particularly important criterion consists in the division by income level. This type of investigation serves to generate important findings on the social and economic situation and development of different income groups. Development of wealth within a national economy can be assessed looking at the economic situation of the lower income classes in relation to the higher classes and on how fast one class integrates into another. These three different types of structuring of income recipients can be combined with each other. Doings so one can generate more insights on the development of the industrialization process co pared to using only one classification type (Müller, Heinz/Geisenberger, Siegfried, 1972: Die Einkommensstruktur in verschiedenen deutschen Ländern 1874-1913. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, S. 13f). The first part of the study exclusively deals with the investigation of the income size structure. These are the summarized results for the investigation on the temporal development of distribution coefficients: (1) Differentiated according to the different states The share of the very highest incomes in the total income is increasing in all states (Besides Hesse) during the investigation period. (2) Differentiated according to the surveyed areas According to the distribution coefficient and its development over time one can say that developments differ a lot between rural and industrial areas. Part B. Siegfried Geisenberger: Important determinants for changes in the income structure. An attempt of an economic interpretation of the development in Prussia 1874-1913. The results from the first part of the investigation gave the impulse for further investigations at the institute of regional politics and transportation science (University of Freiburg). They wanted to investigate the development of the distribution situation for further regions and to control for different income tax laws in several states. The typical differences in the development of income distribution between rural and industrial areas could also be detected for the Prussian governmental districts. The second part of the investigation aims to explain this phenomenon using theoretical economic and statistical instruments. Register of tables in HISTAT: A. Data on income structure in Prussia and in chosen Prussian governmental districts A.1 Data on income structure in Prussia (1874-1913) A.2 Data on income structure in Prussia, governmental district: Marienwerder (1874-1913) A.3 Data on income structure in Prussia, governmental district: Erfurt (1878-1913) A.4 Data on income structure in Prussia, governmental district: Magdeburg (1874-1913) A.5 Data on income structure in Prussia, governmental district: Köslin (1874-1913) A.6 Data on income structure in Prussia, governmental district: Gumbinnen (1874-1913) A.7 Data on income structure in Prussia, governmental district: Düsseldorf (1874-1913) A.8 Data on income structure in Prussia, governmental district: Arnsberg (1874-1913) A.9 Data on income structure in Prussia, governmental district: Aachen (1874-1913) A.10 Share of the upper incomes in the income of private household in chosen states (1874-1913) B. Important determinants for changes in the income structure. An attempt of an economic interpretation of the development in Prussia 1874-1913 B.1 Temporal development of chosen variables in Germany (1874-1913) B.2 Data on income structure in Prussia, governmental district: Erfurt (1878-1913) B.3 Data on income structure in Prussia, governmental district: Arnsberg (1874-1913) B.4 Data on income structure in Prussia, governmental district: Aachen (1874-1913) B.5 Data on income structure in Prussia (1874-1913) B.6 Data on income structure in Prussia, governmental district: Marienwerder (1874-1913) B.7 Data on income structure in Prussia, governmental district: Magdeburg (1874-1913) B.8 Data on income structure in Prussia, governmental district: Düsseldorf (1878-1913) B.9 Data on income structure in Prussia, governmental district rungsbezirk: Gumbinnen (1874-1913) B.10 Data on income structure in Prussia, governmental district: Köslin (1874-1913)
Temporal Coverage
  • 1874 / 1913
Geographic Coverage
  • German Reich (1871-1945) (DXDE)
Collection Mode
  • Sources and type of sources: Documents form the income tax statistics: especially for Prussia a very detailed income tax statistic was published. This allows very useful insights in the personnel structure of incomes. Original material: Journal of the office of the Kingdom of Prussia, nr. 15, 1875 Official communications of the administration office for taxes in Prussia, statistics of the Prussian income tax assessment from 1892/93 and the following years, Berlin 1892 Statistical yearbook for Prussia, nr. 10, 1912 and the following years Data from publications: Hoffmann, W.G./Müller, J.H., 1959: The German National Income 1851-1957(Das deutsche Volkseinkommen 1851-1957). Tübingen. Hoffmann, W.G., 1965: Growth of the German Economy since the middle of the 19th Century (Das Wachstum der deutschen Wirtschaft seit der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts). Berlin/Heidelberg/New York.
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Text Unit
    Number of Units: 40
    Number of Variables: 304
Availability
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Rights
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA8214 (Type: ZA-No.)
Publications
  • Müller, Heinz; Geisenberger, Siegfried: Die Einkommensstruktur in verschiedenen deutschen Ländern 1874-1913. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1972.

Update Metadata: 2020-10-21 | Issue Number: 241 | Registration Date: 2010-07-23

Müller, Heinz; Geisenberger, Siegfried (2005): Die Einkommensstruktur in verschiedenen deutschen Ländern 1874-1913. Version: 1.0.0. GESIS Datenarchiv. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.4232/1.8214