The Development of the German Cotton-Industry in the 19th. Century

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • Kirchhain, Günter
Publication Date
  • ZA:
    • Historical Studies Data
  • Abstract

    In this study Kirchhain aims to analyze quantitatively sectoral growth between 1899 and 1913 taking into account all economically relevant variables. The object of investigation is the cotton industry as for this industry area rich data material is available. The most important input (raw cotton) is exclusively imported and can therefore be calculated on the basis of the external trade statistics. Therefore a reliable sectoral production statistic can be derived for the cotton industry like for no other branch. Also the homogeneity of the production technique facilitates the estimation of capital. The analysis of growth processes and their implications, triggers and barriers is a necessary condition for developing valid development strategies. In this context the role of the cotton industry is analyzed. The role of customs duties is not considered in the analysis. Also on purpose not taken into account is the third production level of the cotton industry: Finishing (refinement, bleachery, finish, printing) because those task were executed by small businesses and therefore there is not enough data available. Only a part of this level is included in weaving because some weaving mills had their own finishing levels. Although the data material is quite rich, it is not broad enough to allow regional differentiation. The starting point of this study is the empirical part in which data series, their sources and estimation methods are presented. The aim of the analytical part is to allow insights on growth processes in the cotton industry that go beyond obvious development of variables. The research approach is based on a Cobb-Douglas production function. Building up on this there is another part discussing the role of the cotton industry for the growth of the entire economy. In this part the question after a ‘leading sector’ is also addressed. Register of tables is HISTAT: A: Production - A.01: Tab.02 – Production in the cotton industry (1800-1869) B: Means of production - B.01: Tab. 04 – Stock of cotton spindles including vigogne spindles in the factory based industry in the states of the German Reich (1800-1913) - B.02: Tab.08 – Stock and changes in stock of spindles (1820-1913) - B.03: Tab.09 – Average age of spinning frames in years (1820-1913) C: Machine productivity - C.01: Tab.10 – spindle productivity (1920-1913) - C.02: Tab.12 – looms and loom productivity (1800-1913) D: Employees and stock of machines - D.01: Tab.14 – stock of machines and employees in the cotton industry (1800-1913) E: Labor productivity - E.01: Tab.23 – labor productivity in the cotton industry (1800-1913) F: Investments and capital stock - F.01: Tab.25 – gross investment of spinning mills in 1000 Mark (1820-1913) - F.02: Tab.28 – value of production and capital of a spinning mill (1800-1913) - F.03: Tab.29 – investment capital in the weaving mill (1800-1913) - F.04: Tab.30 – working capital and investment capital (1800-1913) G: Value creation - G.01: Tab.31 – capital in the cotton industry and its share in the entire trading capital (1800-1913) - G.02:Tab.37 – indices of textile prices (1913=100) (1800-1913) - G.03: Tab.39 – newly calculated prices for cotton gar yarn compared to contemporary estimations (in Pfennigs per kg) (1835-1897) - G.04: Tab.42 – value creation in cotton spinning (1797-1913) - G.05: Tab.43 – gross value creation in cotton weaving and in the entire cotton industry (1800-1913) - G.06: Tab.52 – dividends in the cotton industry (averages, calculated according to the number of reporting companies (1841-1913)) G1: Labor income and wage share - G1.01: Tab.33 – net value creation in the cotton industry and its share in all industries (1800-1913) - G1.02: Tab.45 – net value creation per employee and per working hour (1800-1913) - G1.03: Tab.46 – annual wages in the cotton industry (1800-1913) - G1.04: Tab.51 – wages and wage share in spinning and weaving (1800-1913) H: Capital intensity - H.01: Tab.54 – capital coefficient, labor coefficient and capital intensity in the cotton industry (1800-1913) - H.02: Tab.55 – invested capital per working place in the cotton industry in Mark (1800-1913) I: Foundation of stock corporations - I.01: Tab.56 – Foundations of and existing stock corporations in the cotton industry (1837-1913) J: Growth components in the cotton industry - J.01: Tab.65 – Terms of Trade of cotton fabrics compared to competing textiles (1800-1913) - J.02: Tab.66 – export and import rates in cotton textiles (1834-1913) K. The cotton industry – a leading sector? - K.01: Tab.70 – position of the cotton industry in the entire industry measured by share of employees, of investment and working capital and of net value creation in percent (1844-1913) - K.02: Tab.72 – net investments in cotton spinning in current prices compared to other sectors in million Mark (1851-1910)
Temporal Coverage
  • 1800 / 1913
Geographic Coverage
  • Historical German lands (-1871) (DQDE)
  • German Reich (1871-1945) (DXDE)
Sampled Universe
German cotton industry in the 19th century.
Collection Mode
  • Official statistics: External trade statistics, statistics of the German Reich, annual reports of chambers of commerce and trade, statistics of the German states. Scientific literature.
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Text Unit
    Number of Units: 113
    Number of Variables: 160
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA8264 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • Kirchhain, Günter (1973): Das Wachstum der Deutschen Baumwollindustrie im 19. Jahrhundert. Eine historische Modellstudie zur empirischen Wachstumsforschung. Inaugural-Dissertation. Fachbereich Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster.

Update Metadata: 2021-04-07 | Issue Number: 88 | Registration Date: 2010-07-23