Railroad and german economic growth 1840-1879
- Fremdling, Rainer
- Historical Studies Data
AbstractThis study aims at an empirical verification of the historical importance of the German railways on the basis of new quantitative data with respect to the development of the transport system. In this process, older sources which had been widely neglected have been utilised and regrouped. Within the scope of a leading sector analysis, this study focuses on the mechanism of a continuos industrialisation within the railway sector using the example of Germany. Thereby the theoretical conceptions concerning the economic growth constitute a suitable analytic frame to derive the systematic background for the collection and presentation of the quantitative data materials on the German railway sector. In this respect, the choice of quantifying variables aims at a selective verification of relevant facts in connection with growth-related theories. In conclusion, the author explains the Industrial Revolution in Germany as a growth process fuelled by individual sectors. “The highest aim should consist in a synthesis of economic theories and history in order to allow historians, on the other hand, to gain a deeper insight into the course of the Industrial Revolution in Germany resulting from explicit research objectives and hypotheses; on the other hand, a thorough re-examination of certain hypothesises which have not been proved empirically should enable and incite theoretical researchers studying national economies to deliver newly revised analyses in this field.” (Fremdling , S. 1). By means of a connection between explicit questions and hypotheses gained from economic theory and the above-named systematically compiled data, this study examines the contribution of the railway sector to the industrialisation of Germany, e.g. the importance of the passenger traffic, the enormous expansion of the railway net in the course of the 1840s, and the strong impact of the railway industry on the national economy. Indeed, these factors resulted in the fact that – according to Rainer Fremdling’s findings – the contribution of the railway construction to the development of the heavy industry in Germany has been far greater than e.g. in Great Britain or the US. Furthermore, this study pursues the important question about the importance of the governmental influence concerning the industrialisation in Germany. For instance, the study reveals the fact that military conceptions concerning the expansion of the railway net were definitely only of minor importance. Quite on the contrary, the study clarifies that governmental interventions were more or less an obstacle to the development and extension of the railway system in its founding phase. Among others, Fremdling’s study contains the following important conclusions: (a) The Industrial Revolution in Germany should be considered as a growth process in accordance with the development pattern of the so-called “unbalanced growth” with the railway system as a primary growth factor. (b) In Germany, the railway system has to be regarded as a “ground-breaking” force to boost the economic growth in the 19th century. Topics: List of data tables within the HISTAT research and download system: 01. Average annual growth rates of the output of the German railways (1841-1913) 02. Passenger services and goods traffic as carried out by the German and Prussian railways (1840-1879) 03. Goods traffic carried out by the German railways (1880-1913) 04. The passenger transport by German railways (1880-1913) 05. Profits resulting from the passenger and goods traffic by the German and Prussian railways (1840-1879) 06. Proportion of the employees in the railway sector (construction and operation) as compared to the national economy, and in comparison to the other sectors in Germany (1849-1879) 07. Work force and their income in the German railway services (1840-1879) 08. Work force and their income in the Prussian railway services (1840-1879) 09. Proportion of the value creation in the railway sector as compared to the German national economy/trade and industry (1850-1879) 10. Value creation of German and Prussian railways at the respective contemporary prices (1840-1879) 11. The capital stock of the German and Prussian railways as compared to the related purchase prices (investment capital) between 1840 and 1879 12. Capital stock as compared to the purchase prices (investment capital) and work force of the German railway system (1880-1913) 13. Proportion of the capital stock of the railway services at purchase prices as compared to the national economy/trade and industry (1850-1913) 14. The net investment of the German and Prussian railways at the respective contemporary prices (1841-1879) 14. The expenditure of the German and Prussian railways at the respective contemporary prices (1841-1879) 16. Proportion of the net investment of the railway sector as compared to the national economy/trade and industry in Germany (1851-1879) 17. Productivity, output, and input of the German railway services (1840-1879) 18. Capital coeefficient; capital intensity, labour producitvity, and capital productivity of the German railways (1840-1879) 19. Output and capital stock of the German railway services at the prices of 1879 (1840-1879) 20. Length of railway lines within the German and Prussian railway systems (1835-1879) 21. Locomotives of the Prussian railways (1840-1879) 22. Passenger and goods waggons of the Prussian railways (1844-1879) 23. Average transport prices per passenger and ton-kilometer with reference to the German and Prussian railways (1840-1879) 24. Coal transport by the Prussian railways (1857-1872) 25. Average profits in relation to transported coal quantities per ton-kilometer (1850-1877) 27. Quantitative use of pig iron in railway construction, and production of pig iron in Germany (1840-1863) 26. Countries of origin of the railway engines operated on the Prussian railway system in 1853 (1838-1853) 27. Quantitative use of pig iron in railway construction, and production of pig iron in Germany (1840-1863) 28. Goods traffic by inland navigation and railway services in Germany (1840-1910) 29. Annual wages of railway construction workers in Germany (1840-1879) 30. Total wages and number of workers/employees in German railway construction (1841-1879) 31a. Governmental subsidiaries for private railway companies in Prussia (1837-1848) 31b. Governmental subsidiaries for private railway companies in Prussia (1837-1848) 32. Average dividends of private railway companies in Prussia, German loan banks, coal-mining companies, the iron and steel industry, and the cotton industry (1840-1879) 33. Profits and expenditure as related to the German and Prussian railway systems (1840-1879) 34. Profits, expenditure, surplus, and interest payment as related to the capital invested by the German railway companies (1880-1913) 35. Capital income within the German and Prussian railway systems at the respective contemporary prices (1840-1879) 36. Interest payment resulting from the investment capital used by the German and Prussian railway companies, and Prussian government bonds (1840-1879) 37. Interest payment resulting from the investment capital raised by the completely opened German railways, and by Prussian government bonds (1840-1850) 38. Growth rates related to the return on capital, net investment, and the additionally licensed investment capital within the Prussian railway sector (1841-1878) 39. Profits from passenger and goods traffic compared (1840-1875) 40. Income of regularly paid railway employees in Prussia (1851-1879) 41. Income of regularly paid railway employees in Germany (1851-1874) 42. Income of day labourers within the Prussian railway sector (1851-1879) 43. Income of day labourers within the German railway sector (1851-1874) Annex tables: A.1 Demand for iron on the part of the railway services (in pig iron equivalents) in Germany (1840-1859) A.2 Origin of railway tracks used for the Prussian railway system (1843-1863) A.3 German shares in the English iron exports (1830-1869) A.4 The English iron export into the German states, annual average values in metric tons (1830-1869) A.5 Input-output relation of selected sectors (coefficients in per cent of consumption), Germany, German Zollverein, and Prussia (1840-1869)
1840 / 1879
Historical German lands (-1871) (DQDE)
German Reich (1871-1945) (DXDE)
Sources: 840-1849: Statistical News about the Prussian Railways (“Statistische Nachrichten von den Preußischen Eisenbahnen”); re-edited by the Technical Railway Office of the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Public Works (“Technisches Eisenbahn-Büreau des Ministeriums für Handel, Gewerbe und öffentliche Arbeiten”). Vol. 1., Berlin 1855. Reden, Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von, The German Railway Companies. Statistical and Historical Overview of their Origin, Relation to the Government, and the related Administrative and Operational Institutions. Berlin/Posen/Bromberg 1843-1847. Railway Journal (“Eisenbahnzeitung”). Ed. Heinrich Meyer. Annual ed. 1-2. Braunschweig 1943-1844. From 1844 Ed. Carl Etzel and Ludwig Klein. Annual ed. 3-17. Stuttgart 1845-1859. Michaelis, Julius., Germany’s Railways. 2. ed., Leipzig 1859. Beil, J.A., Condition and Results of the German, American, British, French, Belgian, Dutch, Italian, and Russian Railway Systems until 1843. Frankfurt 1844. Beil, J.A., Condition and Results of the European and American Railways until 1847. Vienna 1847. The German Railways and their Development between 1835-1935. Berlin 1935. Variuos single publications: Historical and statistical overviews on the development of the railways; Memoranda. 1850-1879: Statistical News about the Prussian Railways (“Statistische Nachrichten von den Preußischen Eisenbahnen”); re-edited by the Technical Railway Bureau of the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Public Works (“Technisches Eisenbahn-Büreau des Ministeriums für Handel, Gewerbe und öffentliche Arbeiten”). Vol. 1-27. Berlin 1855-1880. German railway statistics for the operating year (1850-1880). Compilation by the Managing Directorate of the Association of German Railway Administrations (“Geschäftsführende Direction des Vereins Deutscher Eisenbahn-Verwaltungen”). Statististical News about the railways supervised by the Association of German Railway Administrations (“Verein Deutscher Eisenbahnverwaltungen”). Ed. by the Managing Directorate of the Association. 1880-1913: Statistics on the German Railways in operation (ed. by the German Railway Authorities/“Reichs-Eisenbahn-Amt”). Vol. I et sqq., operating year 1880 (1881 et sqq. Berlin 1882 et sqq.) Statistical Handbook for the German Reich (“Statisches Handbuch für das Deutsche Reich”), Part 1. Berlin 1907. Statistical Yearbook for the German Reich (“Statistisches Jahrbuch für das Deutsche Reich”), Annual ed. 36. Berlin 1915. Statistics of the Association of German Railway Administrations (“Verein Deutscher Eisenbahn-Verwaltungen”).
Number of Units: 39
Number of Variables: 176
- ZA8277 (Type: ZA-No.)
Fremdling, Rainer, 1985: Eisenbahnen und deutsches Wirtschaftswachstum 1840-1879. Ein Beitrag zur Entwicklungstheorie und zur Theorie der Infrastruktur. 2. erw. A. Dortmund: Gesellschaft für Westfälische Wirtschaftsgeschichte e.V.
Update Metadata: 2021-04-07 | Issue Number: 87 | Registration Date: 2010-07-23