Public Expenditure in Western Europe fro 1790 to 1992.

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • Kohl, Jürgen
Publication Date
  • ZA:
    • Historical Studies Data
  • Abstract

    The section on ´Public Expenditure´ of the data manuel ´State, Economy, and Society in Western Europe 1815 to 1975, Vol. I, (ed.: Peter Flora) “… presents data on total public expenditure and its functional breakdown in principle for each country, in a sequence of five tables. The first table contains the longer series of general and central government expenditure, in absolute figures and as a percentage of gross and net domestic product. The next two tables give an initial breakdown by major function, as percentages of gross domestic product and total public expenditure. The last two tables offer a more detailed breakdown of central and general government expenditure. In principle, a very broad concept of public expenditure has been used. It includes not only all levels of government (central, local, and where relevant, regional) but also social insurance, and is here called ´general government expenditure´. Public enterprises are not included or only with their net results (profits/deficits transferred to/covered by public expenditure) which are of minor importance. An attempt has been made to present only consolidated figures, i. e. to avoid a double counting of transfers among different levels of government or between them and social insurance institutions. This was possible in cases for which the financial data have been harmonized with the national accounts statistics. In earlier periods, for which a ´consolidation´ of public expenditure was not possible, these transfers were usually small. In practice, not all data are really based on this embracive concept of public expenditure. For some countries/ periods an inclusion of social insurance proved to be too difficult and in a few cases only data on central government expenditure have been available. The aggregate data on public expenditure, both for general and central government, are given in the first table (Public Expenditures) as absolute figures and as percentages of gross and net domestic product. In addition, this table also contains ´centralisation ratios´, i.e. the shares of central, ´regional´, and local government, and/or social insurance in total expenditure. The first two of the four tables (General and Central Government Expenditures by Major Function) offer a relatively crude breakdown of total expenditure. The single items are given as percentages of total expenditure and as per¬centages of gross domestic product. They are based on the more detailed breakdowns in the last two tables (General and Central Government Expenditures), i.e. certain adjacent functions have been aggregated as follows: - ´administration and justice´: general interior and financial administration, foreign affairs, judiciary and police; - ´economic and environmental services´: agriculture, industry and commerce, transport and communication; - ´social services´: social insurance and assistance, other social transfers, health, housing, education and science; - ´residual expenditure´: generally including interests on public debt; other items included are annotated” (Flora, P. u.a. (1983): State, Economy, and Society in Western Europe 1815-1975. A Data Handbook in Two Volumes. Volume I. The Growth of Mass Democracies and Welfare States. Frankfurt/Main: Campus, S. 345f). Die Datensammlung wurde ergänzt durch ausgewählte Zeitreihen aus zwei weiteren Publikationen (s.u.) Topics: Datatables in the search- and downloadsystem HISTAT: Information: HISTAT is offered only in German language. For 13 western european countries the following subcategorisation was made: (A – Tables): (a) Gesamte öffentliche Ausgaben sowie Ausgaben der Zentralregierung (in der jeweiligen Landeswährung), Staatsquoten (in % des Bruttosozialprodukts, in % des Nettosozialprodukts - Volkseinkommen), Zentralisierung (in %; Aufteilung der öffentlichen Ausgaben auf „central expenditures“, „regional expenditures“ und „local expenditures“). (b) Gesamte öffentliche Ausgaben nach Hauptfunktionen (in % des BSP; in % der Gesamtausgaben). (c) Ausgaben der Zentralregierung Hauptfunktionen (in % des BSP; in % der Gesamtausgaben). (d) Gesamte öffentliche Ausgaben nach Funktionen (in % der Gesamtausgaben). (e) Ausgaben der Zentralregierung nach Funktionen (in % der Gesamtausgaben). Additional Tables (B- and C-Tables): Daten aus Kohl, Jürgen (1985): Staatsausgaben in Westeuropa. Analysen zur langfristigen Entwicklung der öffentlichen Finanzen. Frankfurt/Main: Campus, S. 315 – 328. B.01 Gesamte öffentliche Ausgaben (1950-1980) B.02 Laufende öffentliche Einnahmen (1950-1980) B.03 Soziale Transferausgaben (1950-1980) B.04. Anteil der Gesamausgaben an den laufenden Einnahmen (Budgetsaldo I) (1950-1980) B.05 Anteil der laufende Ausgaben an den laufenden Einnahmen (Budgetsaldo II) (1950-1980) B.06 Anteil der Sozialausgaben am Bruttoinlandsprodukt (1962-1980) B.07 Funktionale Struktur der Sozialausgaben (1962-1980) C. Selected data from the publication: Kohl, Jürgen (1992): Die öffentlichen Ausgaben, ihre Finanzierung und die Entwicklung des Staatssektors, in: Gabriel, O. W./Brettschneider, F. (Hrsg.), 1992: Die EU-Staaten im Vergleich. Strukturen, Prozesse, Politikinhalte. 2., überarb. A., Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, S. 359-383. C.01 Staatseinnahmen, Staatsausgaben und Saldo in europäischen Ländern, in Prozent des Bruttoinlandsprodukts zu Marktpreisen (1960-1990) C.02 Staatseinnahmen, Staatsausgaben und Saldo in europäischen Ländern, je Einwohner in DM, errechnet über Kaufkraftparitäten (1970-1990)
Temporal Coverage
  • 1790 / 1992
Geographic Coverage
  • Germany (DE)
  • Switzerland (CH)
  • Austria (AT)
  • France (FR)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Belgium (BE)
  • United Kingdom (GB)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Norway (NO)
  • Sweden (SE)
  • Finland (FI)
  • Historical German lands (-1871) (DQDE)
  • German Reich (1871-1945) (DXDE)
  • Austria (1806-1918) (AAAT)
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Text Unit
    Number of Units: 200
    Number of Variables: 806
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA8334 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • Flora, P. u.a., 1983: State, Economy, and Society in Western Europe 1815-1975. A Data Handbook in Two Volumes. Volume I. The Growth of Mass Democracies and Welfare States. Frankfurt/Main: Campus, S. 345 – S. 449.

Update Metadata: 2021-04-07 | Issue Number: 86 | Registration Date: 2011-02-21