Germany’s foreign trade between 1836 and 1856. A statistical study of early industrialization.

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • Borries, Bodo von
Publication Date
  • ZA:
    • Historical Studies Data
  • Abstract

    The study’s subject is the economic evaluation of the tariff union as well as the statistical coverage of economic key variables. After describing the strengths and weaknesses of the trade statistics a critical compilation of older trade statistics’ valuation attempts, a calculation of the trade volume at fixed prices and a list of price indices on foreign trade followes. Investigated Period: Only since 1836 reliable source material is available. Because for the analysis of structural change a time period of at least 20 years is necessary, it would be suitable to choose the year 1856 as final year of the investigation period. Investigated Territory: The study deals with the tariff union, and additionally with the North Sea Coast or rather with the share of north German tariff union areas of the German trade. In doing so, the researcher gets time series data which are comparable with time series data of the then future German Empire (German Reich). With the term ‘greater Germany’ (Gesamtdeutschland) the author means the territory of the German Empire in the borders of 1870 without Alsace-Lorraine and including Luxembourg since the year 1842. The Hanseatic towns Hamburg, Bremen, and Luebeck are involved in the tariff union. Hannover, Oldenburg, and Schaumburg-Lippe, that form until 1853 the tax association, are also added to the area of the tariff union. The six customs areas of North Germany are analyzed each individually in terms of growth of trade, trade balance, structural composition as well as origin and destination of the trade. In order to get information on the greater Germany’s foreign trade, the direct foreign trades of the individual states are added up and the internal trade is excluded. The author compares the result of this computation with trade statistics of other countries. Then the development of the tariff union’s foreign trade is placed in a wider context in order to identify interrelations between foreign trade and industrialization. Aspects of this analysis are the production, the net national product, as well as the economic trend. The investigator points out that Walther G. Hoffmann deals in his studies on foreign trade with a somewhat different subject ( see W.G. Hoffmann’s publication 1967: Strukturwandlungen im Außenhandel der deutschen Volkswirtschaft seit Mitte des 19. Jh; 1965: Das Wachstum der deutschen Wirtschaft seit Mitte des 19. Jh.). W.G. Hoffmann analyses solely the structural changes of the trade volume during a very long time period between 1836 and 1955 without consideration of the value. Therefore he concentrates his analysis on the tariff union’s trade volume on prices of 1918. In contrast, the investigator B. von Borries analyses in his study the first 20 years of the tariff union, whereby the analysis of the trade volume on the basis of 1913 is excluded (Borries 1970, p. 6). The sources used by the investigator von Borries, are predominantly published official statistics of the German customs areas. Furthermore scientific publications were factored into the analysis. The study contains time series data to the following subjects: A. The Tariff Union: Trade volume, trade values and indices by groups of goods and by import, export, and transit. B. Nort Germany: Foreign trade of Hamburg, Bremen, and Schleswig-Holstein; Trade volume, values, indices by groups of goods and by trade partners. C. Greater Germany (i.e. Germany in the borders of the German Emire of 1871): Import and export, general trade, intermediate trade, special trade, commercial values Datatables available via the search- and downloadsystem HISTAT (Topic: foreign trade = Außenhandel): A. The Trade Union A1 Trade Union: Gross tariff revenues and population (according to Hübner and Hoffmann) (1834-1856) A2 Trade Union: Contemporary estimates of trade: import, export, transit in Talern according to Junghanns and Hübner (1834-1861) A3 Trade Union: Trade volume according to Hoffmann and Junghanns, current common market values according to Hübner and Bondi (in 1000 Talern) (1836-1856) A4 Trade Union: Corrected trade volume according to v.Borries (1836-1856) A5 Trade Union: Indizes of volumens on the basis of 1836 (1836-1856) A6 Trade Union: Preis Indizes A.6.1. Price indices according to Jacobs-Richter (1834-1856) A.6.2. Trade Union: Price indices of Product groups on the basis of 1836/38; weights and indices by import, export and transit (1836-1856) A.6.3. Trade Union: Price indices and volume of product groups on the basis of 1836/41 according to v.Borries, trade values by import, export and transit (1836-1856) A7 Trade Union: Common Market Value A.7.1. Trade Union: Values in triennial averages (in 1000 Talern); Comparison between v. Borries and Bondi (1936-1856) A.7.2. Trade Union: Values of trade per capita in triennial averages by import, export and transit (in Talern) (1836-1856) A.8 Trade Union: Indizes of Volumina and Values by import, export and transit by v. Borries (1836/38=100) (1836-1856) B. Northern Germany B1 Hamburg B1.1 Hamburg: Common Market Values (in MkBco) on the basis of 1848/50 according to Soetbeer B1.2 Hamburg: Import and Export to German and foreign trade partners according to Soetbeer (in MkBco, exkl. Contanten) B1.3 Hamburg: direct sea trade to cooperating countries according to Soetbeer (in MkBco, exkl. Contanten and Altona) B1.4 Hamburg: direct sea trade by product groups according to Soetbeer (in MkBco, Exkl. Contanten) B1.5 Hamburg: Nobel metal trade (in MkBco) according to Soetbeer B2 Bremen B2.1 Bremen: Common Market Values (in Talern Gold) on the basis of 1848/50 nach Rauers (Index: 1848/50 = 100) B2.2 Bremen: Import and Export to German and foreign countries, account balances and re-exportation to Germany in Talern Gold according to Soetbeer B2.3 Bremen: Sea trade by cooperating countries in Talern Gold according to Soetbeer B3 Lübeck and Schleswig-Holstein B3.1 Lübeck: Common Market Values (in MkCrt, exkl. Contanten) B3.2 Schleswig-Holstein: Official Common Market Values 1834-1856 in Rbtalern according to the yearly issues of the statistical tables (= Jahresbänden des Statistischen Tabellenwerkes) C. Entire Germany C1 Entire Germany: The trade union’s import and export (in Mio Talern) according to calculations of v. Borries. C2 Entire Germany: Foreign trade of the trade unions member states (in Mio Talern) according to v. Borries C3 Entire Germany: General trade, Intermediary trade, Special trade without Intermediary trade (in Mio Talern); Estimates according to v. Borries C4 Entire Germany: Handelsumsatz im Vergleich der Handelsnationen in Mio. Talern C5 Trade Union and German Empire (Deutsches Reich): Werte des Handels in Mio Talern C6 Trade Union and German Empire (Deutsches Reich): Anteile der Warengruppen am Handel C7 Prussia: Values and development of mints (Ausprägung der Münsstätten) (denomination in Talern)
Temporal Coverage
  • 1836 / 1856
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Text Unit
    Number of Units: 20
    Number of Variables: 623
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
All metadata from GESIS DBK are available free of restriction under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. However, GESIS requests that you actively acknowledge and give attribution to all metadata sources, such as the data providers and any data aggregators, including GESIS. For further information see
Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA8365 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • Bodo Fritz Rudolf von Borries: Deutschlands Außenhandel 1836 bis 1856. Eine statistische Untersuchung zur Frühindustrialisierung. Diss., Stuttgart: Fischer 1970

Update Metadata: 2020-10-21 | Issue Number: 60 | Registration Date: 2011-04-08