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Germany and the Economic World Crisis 1924 to 1936

Resource Type
  • James, Harold
Publication Date
  • ZA:
    • Historical Studies Data
  • Abstract

    James‘ study is a comprehensive approach to present the special features of Germany’s economic crisis during the period of the world economic crisis. Germany’s very specific crisis factors are described using new sources and considering new research questions. It is an analysis of the political and economic sociological structure of the crisis. The economic crisis was a significant turning point in the economic activities of people. The change in expectations and behaviours manifested in two ways: in the politicization of the economy and in the states’ obligation on the principle of economic interventionism. Harold James classifies the German crisis into a wider framework. The distinguishing characteristic of the German crisis in comparison to other countries is the degree of politicization, the close association of economic and political crisis. In the research there are three different explanations for the depression that lay the main emphasis on international relations. The explanations focus on the degree of global technical progress, the development of world trade, and the development of the international capital markets. Other approaches favour a purely domestic economic explanation of the economic crisis. James starts from two problem areas in his analysis: first, the slow growth of world trade in the twenties and second, the German tax burden. Five aspects of the problem area are analysed: 1. How big was the willingness of taxpayers to accept the tax increases? 2. How was the organizational development of German industry and what were the reasons for the development? What consequences had the organizational structure of the industry for the German economy? 3. How affected the wage push of the late twenties the German economy structure, and what policy responses have been evoked by the wage push? 4. How did the German agricultural sector succeeded in influencing the political decision-making processes so strong that there has been no price fall of agricultural products during the depression? What were the consequences of the agricultural development on the overall economic development? 5. The bank system and the credit system was in the period of the twenties highly unstable. Its instability has contributed significantly to the worsening of the depression. To what extent was the increasing instability due to political calculation? Datatables in the search- and downloadsystem HISTAT (Topic: Growth, Economy, and Crisis (=Wachstum, Konjunktur und Krisen) ): A. Die öffentlichen Finanzen (= Official Finances: revenues, expenses, national dept, municipal dept, tax revenues) A.01a Staatseinnahmen, Staatsausgaben und Staatsverschuldung in Deutschland, in Millionen Reichmark (1926-1933) A.01b Zunahme der deutschen Kommunalverschuldung, in Millionen Reichmark (1928-1931) A.02 Steuereinnahmen der Kommunen, in Millionen Reichsmark (1928-1933) A.03 Schulden der Kommunen mit über 10.000 Einwohnern, in Millionen Reichmark (1928-1930) B. Die industrielle Struktur: Stagnation und Immobilität (= Industrial Structure: stagnation and immobility. Average yearly growth rate of german industrial products; share of taxes and social expenditurs on the national income; lending; industrial investment) B.01 Durchschnittliche jährliche Zuwachsraten der deutschen Industrieproduktion, in Prozent (1913-1932) B.02 Anteil der Steuern und Sozialabgaben am Volkseinkommen in Großbritannien, Frankreich und Deutschland, in Prozent (1925-1929) B.03 Kreditvergabe der Kreditinstitute, ohne Waren- und Wertpapierlombardgeschäfte (1913-1933) B.04 Industrielle Investitionen von Kapitalgesellschaften, in Millionen Reichsmark (1924-1931) B.05 Der Steinkohlenbergbau des Ruhrgebiets (1913-1931) C. Lohnentwicklung (= Wage-Development. Real Wages; hourly wages and productivity; share of wages on national income) C.01a Kumulierte Reallohnposition, Basisjahr 1938 (1925-1933) C.01b Stundenlöhne und Produktivität in der deutschen Industrie und im deutschen Handwerk (1925-1932) C.02 Stundenlohnsätze, im Jahresdurchschnitt (1925-1932) C.03 Anteil der Löhne am Volkseinkommen (1927-1939) D. Beschäftigung (= occupation. Labour disputes; number of employees of Siemens and of the rhenish-westphalian heavy industry) D.01 Durch Arbeitskämpfe in Deutschland ausgefallene Arbeitstage (1924-1932) D.02 Zahl der Beschäftigten bei Siemens & Halske und der Siemens-Schuckertwerke GmbH (1928-1934) D.03 Zahl der Beschäftigten in der rheinisch-westfälischen Schwerindustrie (1927-1932) E. Die Landwirtschaft (= agricultural sector: Germany´s crop yields; average weight of animals for slaughter; Germany’s animal stock; level of dept of Germany’s agriculture) E.01a Bodenerträge in Deutschland, (1913-1924) E.01b Durchschnittsgewicht der Schlachttiere (1906-1924) E.01c Gesamtviehbestand in Deutschland (1913-1924) E.02 Die Verschuldung der deutschen Landwirtschaft (1925-1930) E.03 Zinsbelastung der deutschen Landwirtschaft (1924-1932) F. Die Bankenkrise (= banking crisis. Dept and investments) F.01 Schulden und Investitionen deutscher Aktiengesellschaften (1927-1933) F.02 Kohlenbestände (1928-1932) F.03 Neue Inlandsaufträge für die deutsche Maschinenindustrie, Index 1927 = 100 (1927) G. Ein nationalsozialistischer Wirtschaftsaufschwung? (= national socialist economic boom?) G.01 Einnahmen und Ausgaben in der deutschen Landwirtschaft (1928-1936) G.02 Staatseinnahmen und Staatsausgaben (1932-1937) G.03a Staatsverschuldung (1931-1938) G.03b Nettozunahme der kurz- und langfristigen Staatsverschuldung (1931-1938) G.04 Rüstungsausgaben des Deutschen Reiches (1933-1938) G.05 Entwicklung der deutschen Auslandsverschuldung (1931-1939)
Temporal Coverage
  • 1924 / 1936
Geographic Coverage
  • German Reich (1871-1945) (DXDE)
  • United Kingdom (GB)
  • Switzerland (CH)
  • United States (US)
Collection Mode
  • Sources: Unpublished sources of archives. Data from scientific publications; information from journals and newspapers; collection of the HWWA – Institute’s news clippings (HWWA = Institute for Economic Research, Hamburg); official statistics of Germany, Great Britain, Switzerland and the United States.
Data and File Information
  • Number of Variables: 211
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA8433 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • James, Harold, 1988: Deutschland in der Weltwirtschaftskrise 1924 – 1936. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlagsanstalt - Anstalt.

Update Metadata: 2017-12-29 | Issue Number: 72 | Registration Date: 2011-03-15

James, Harold (2011): Deutschland in der Weltwirtschaftskrise 1924 – 1936. Version: 1.0.0. GESIS Datenarchiv. Dataset.