Germany’s Foreign Trade between 1815 and 1870.
- Bondi, Gerhard
- Historical Studies Data
AbstractA comprehensive statistics on Germany’s foreign trade, recording all goods imported into and exported from the German customs territory, exists only since 1880. The German foreign trade statistics for the period after 1871 till 1880, is only with numerous limitations applicable. The study is into four parts: I) General basics for the development of the German foreign trade in the 19th century till the foundation of the German Empire. II) Germany’s foreign trade as first step to the formation of a national market. (1815 to 1833) III) Germany’s foreign trade in the first twenty years after the foundation of the German customs area (1834 to 1845) IV) The position of the German capitalism in the world market during the final stage of industrial early capitalism (1854 to 1870). The aim of the investigation is to characterize the changes, the German foreign trade underwent at that time. It turned out, that the early German statistics on the basis of individual selected factors and the additional use of foreign statistics, reflect correctly the decisive and important developments of the German foreign trade. It is important to note, that Bodo F.R. von Borries in his publication on the German foreign trade in the period of 1836 to 1856 has criticized extensively Bondi’s used databasis for his investigation (see: Bodo Fritz Rudolf von Borries, 1970: Deutschlands Außenhandel 1836 bis 1856. Stuttgart; archived study under the number: ZA8365, searchable and downloadable via HISTAT) Datatables in the search- and downloadsystem HISTAT: T = Tables in the text T.01 Entwicklung des Außenhandels des Deutschen Zollvereins (1834-1853) (Development of the foreign trade of the German custom area) T.02 Ein- und Ausfuhr des Zollvereins nach Anteilsätzen oder einzelnen Warenklassen (1828-1869) (Import and Export of the German custom area by shares of the single classes of goods) T.03 Ein- und Ausfuhr von Rohbaumwolle und Baumwollgarn des Zollvereins (1828-1840) (Import and Export of raw cutton and cutton yarn of the custom area) T.04 Ein- und Ausfuhr von Flachs und Leinengarn (1828-1850) (Import and Export of flax and flax yarn) T.05 Importe von Roh- und Stabeisen (1837-1853) (Imports of raw and bar-iron) T.06 Verbrauch des Zollvereins an Roheisen für den inneren Bedarf (1834-1850) (The custom area’s consumption of raw iron for the inner requires) A = Tables in the annex A.01 Deutscher Außenhandel (1800-1872) (= German Foreign Trade)
1815 / 1870
Historical German lands (-1871) (DQDE)
Sources: (a) The German customs union´s prior period (1825-1833): estimates on the basis of the prussian official statistics and on the basis of Malchus and Dieterici. Additionaly documents on the development of maritim traffic, the customs revenues and the price developments, which influenced directly the foreign trade, were used. (b) The period of the German customs union (1834-1870): The German Custom Union´s trade: - records on imports and exports (Custom Union´s statistics). 1834 to 1846: calculations of C. Junghanns, 1850 to 1861: calculations of Otto Hübner, published in the different issues of the "Jahrbuch für Volkswirtschaft und Statistik", Leipzig (= Yearbook on economics and statistics). - for the years 1847 to 1849, 1862/63 and 1865 to 1870 the foreign trade turnover has been recalculated on the basis of the ´Commerzial-Nachweisungen´ of the German custums union considering the price changes. Overviews: Statistisches Jahrbuch für das Deutsche Reich, zweiter Teil, Anhang zur Tabelle 4, S. 458ff, Berlin 1907 ( Übersicht über ein- ausgeführte Mengen der wichtigsten Waren seit dem Jahre 1836). (=Statistical Yearbooks of the German Empire, second part) Dieterici, published calculations for the period 1837 to 1841. Publications of Heinrich Rau and A. Soetbeers. Statistical documents of foreign countries.
Number of Units: 55
Number of Variables: 60
- ZA8449 (Type: ZA-No.)
Bondi, Gerhard, 1958: Deutschlands Außenhandel 1815 – 1870. Berlin: Akademie Verlag.
Update Metadata: 2021-04-07 | Issue Number: 88 | Registration Date: 2011-03-15