The Development of Germany’s science policy until 1914
- Pfetsch, Frank R.
- GESIS (Distributor)
- GESIS (Hosting Institution)
- Historical Studies Data
science policy; funding; funding policy; organization; science; Education expenditure
AbstractIn his investigation of development of science policies in Germany the author first of all develops a functional scheme of systematization: “science as a social system for thinking and action is embedded in a public, social and economic interest field. Scientific activity should be understood in terms of a public socio-economic system of action. The field of action within the triad of economics, science and the state is shaped by different factors of the environment… Determining factors for scientific, political and economic systems of action are general economic, military, social, cultural, historical and international conditions” (Pfetsch, a. cit., p. 16, 20). In another section the term of science policy is specifically defined. “Scientific policy as a field of research tries to determine and analyze the procedures and institutions of political scientific decisions and the objectives that the decision-makers consider, consciously or unconsciously… Science policies are all measures which are directed to teaching and research in universities and those that are undertaken by private persons, organized groups and public organizations. The direct or indirect objective of those measures is to promote the extension of knowledge.” (Pfetsch, a. cit., S. 26, p. 30f). According to the theoretical concept of this study it was tried extrapolate to parts of the action network of science, state and economy through longitudinal and cross-sectional analyzes. Public science policy is reflected by the expenses for science and technology. The structure of public expenditure reflects the order of preferences in political decision making. The financing of scientific actions through the German Reich and the five largest federal states (Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Württemberg and Baden) was determined and presented according to various criteria (chapter II) to see the space of action of public administration. Under the term “science expenditure” expenditures for universities and other research institutions as well as for other scientific activities like scientific expeditions are summarized. Scientific expenditures needed to be calculated for each year and for each territorial authority looking at the relevant budged because there is no compilation of those expenditures. This quantitative analysis of public financing was extended by an investigation of the foundation of the first non-university science institution of the German Reich (chapter III). The case study of the foundation of the physical technical Reich-institute should show the decision making structures and the self-conception of science politicians. In addition to the scientific and the state political action area the economic sector is primarily interesting. The present investigation of the emergence and development of especially the “useful” sciences should be understood regarding the background of the industrializing German state. The question of the connection between the development of the economy and of science is analyzed in a separated analysis (chapter IV). This investigation focusses on the type and the scope of economic utilization interests and scientific interests concerning economic utilization. Institutions for the support of scientific activities reflect the state of economic policies. Therefore the fifth chapter reports about the scientific organizations in Germany from 1750 to 1914. The working hypothesis used here, was that the analysis of private and public scientific organizations give some identification of the focuses, directions and objections of scientific activities. The investigation is mainly based on scientific organizations that were founded between 1750 and 1914. The place, country and date of foundation, the name of organization, if it is public or private and changes in those features were recorded. Altogether 1545 scientific organizations were recorded. The foundation activities were analyzed and interpreted for different periods. The development over time and the development of the contents will be shown for the largest federal states from the date of their foundation on. The objective of this part of the investigation is present the scientific organizations and to explain their growth. The sixth chapter is about the society of German natural scientist and Medicals (Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte (GDNÄ)) and their science political role. This chapter about a German scientific society should describe how the scientific community of the 19th century organized itself in the area of natural science and medicine. Their development and changes over approximately 100 years show different intended functions within the social and scientific system. The focus of interest is on processes of specializations and on institutional settings that caused or were caused by those processes. The organizational structure will be shown with their connection with scientific principles. The focus of the seventh chapter is on the comparison of the scientific and science policy activities between Germany and England. The differences in the economic and social conditions that German and English scientists had to face are shown in this chapter. Data tables in HISTAT: A. Public science financing (1850 – 1914) A.01Scientific expenditures of the German Reich and the federal states, in billions of Reichsmark) (1850-1914) A.02 The development of the expenditures of the German Reich, in billions of Reichsmark (1868-1914) A.03 Public subsidies for universities, in billions of Reichsmark (1850 – 1914) A.04 Public expenditures for Science and technology, in 1000 Marl (1850 – 1914) A.05 Orientation of scientific expenditure to economic, military and general scientific expenditure (in 1000 Mark/ in percent) (1850 – 1914) B. Case study: Foundation of the physical technical Reich-institute, PTR (1887-1914) C. Growth of Science and Economy (1860 – 1914) D. Scientific organizations in Germany (1750 – 1914) E. Society of German natural scientists and medicals, GDNÄ (1828– 1913) Register of tables in Histat A. Public science financing (1850 - 1914) A.01 Science financing of the Reich and federal states, in billion Reichsmark (in current prices) (1850-1914) A.02 Development of expenditure of the Reich, in billions of Reichsmark (1868-1914) A.03 Public subsidies for universities in billions of Reichsmark (1850-1914) A.03 Public subsidies for universities, in billions of Reichsmark (1850 – 1914) A.04 Public expenditures for Science and technology, in 1000 Reichsmark (1850 – 1914) A.05Orientation of scientific expenditure to economic, military and general scientific expenditure (in 1000 Mark/ in percent) (1850 – 1914) B. Case study: Foundation of the physical technical Reich-institute (PTR) B.01 Public financing of the physical technical Reich-institute, PTR (1887-1914) C. Growth of Science and Economy C.01 Indicators of the economic status of development of the respective federal states (1852-1912) C.02 Academic employees in the chemical industry compared to the whole number of employees and chemists in the TH (1865-1913) C.03 Number of basic innovation after Jewkes, Sawers and Stillerman at the end of the process (1900-1959) C.04 Number of basic innovation after Schumpeter at the end of the process (1865-1914) C.06 Proportion of production related support of science on budget and on GDP (1850-1914) C.07 Universities and Technical Colleges: frequenciess (1869-1914) D. Scientific organizations in Germany D.01 Scientific organizations in Germany listed according to their status and time period (1750-1914) D.02a Scientific organizations founded between 1750 and 1914 listed according to their federal state and their subject area, absolute numbers (1750-1914) D.02a Scientific organizations founded between 1750 and 1914 listed according to their federal state and their subject area, in percent (1750-1914) D.03 Number of scientific organizations founded in the area of the Reich, Preopen and Berlin (1850-1909) D.04 Inventory of physiological journals worldwide (1775-1950) D.05 Inventory of physiological journals worldwide (1795-1949) E. Society of German natural scientists and medicals (GDNÄ) E.01Development of the sections of the GDNÄ (1828-1913) E.02 Societies that emerged in the context of the GDNÄ (1847-1912) E.03 Development of the participants of the GDNÄ meetings (1822-1913) E.04 Development of the average participation of the section meetings (1822-1852) E.05 German specialist associations of natural science and medicine (1845-1914)
1850 / 1914
German Reich (1871-1945) (DXDE)
Number of Units: 64
Number of Variables: 391
- ZA8472 (Type: ZA-No.)
- 1 (Type: VerbundFDB)
Pfetsch, Frank R., 1974: Zur Entwicklung der Wissenschaftspolitik in Deutschland 1750 – 1914. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot.
Update Metadata: 2021-04-07 | Issue Number: 90 | Registration Date: 2011-05-11