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The development of the livestock in Germany from 1816 to 1927.

Resource Type
  • Ritter, Kurt
Publication Date
  • ZA:
    • Historical Studies Data
  • Abstract

    The present study is an attempt to present the development of German livestock since the beginning of the 19th century in numbers and partly also graphically. As the objective of the investigation was to describe this development in broad terms it is based on 20 years intervals. “The information starts in 1816 because an earlier start did not seem appropriate as a consequence of the war years. The following evaluation years are 1833, 1853, 1873, 1892, 1913 and 1927. For processing the data material an appropriate demarcation of the geographical districts was of crucial importance. An appropriate unit for Prussia and Bavaria is a government district (Regierungsbezirk), for Saxony the district office (Kreishauptmannschaft), for Württemberg the district (Kreis), for Baden the federal commissioner district (Landeskommissarbezirk), for Hesse the province (Provinz) for Oldendburg the region (Landesteil) and for Alsace-Lorraine the district (Bezirk). The other regions were not subdivided. The Thuringian States have always been combined into one unit. All regions were defined after the administrative division of 1927. For Baden an earlier administrative division in 11 districts was translated into the division in four federal commissioner districts of 1927” (Ritter, a. cit., p. 5 f.). As an Introduction to the investigation an overview over the territory size of the relevant districts will be given. This data is based on the sizes of 1927; the whole district designation is based on this year. In those tables you also find data about the population in the different districts for different years of censuses because the data of the density of livestock becomes more meaningful in combination with data about population density. For the years after the foundation of the German Empire the results of the censuses for the years of 1871, 1890, 1910 and 1925 were used. It was always possible to use numbers of population level, which are only few years away from the respective livestock census years. The population level before the foundation of the German Empire was determined through a compilation of the results of censuses of the different districts. A uniform count for all German states was first performed on December 3, 1867. For the data by the year 1833, the first of the three-year census of the Zollverein in 1834 served as a basis. Also for the numbers around 1816 appropriate data was available, partly because there was a census in Prussia in 1816. In the description of the development of livestock horses, cattle, sheep, pigs and goats for all years of evaluation and chicken for 1912 and 1927 were taken into account. Mules and donkeys are not included due to their small importance; as well as all types of poultry besides - chickens - and bees and rabbits are not included, especially since there is no satisfactory information for the early years. Prussia started to identify spring cattle only in 1897(the first comprehensive census in the German Empire was carried out in 1900 with regard to the upcoming trade agreements; the first census for bees in the German Empire was carried out in 1873). “We did not succeed in fining reliable data for all regions for the time around 1916 and 1833; also for the time around 1853, some gaps still remained. However, a look at the tables on the quantities of individual livestock species shows that the missing data is almost always from small regions with little importance in the overall framework.” (Ritter, a. cit., p. 4). The basis of the representation is for all livestock species always the total number of stocks (numbers in thousands). To clearly highlight the importance of the data on the number of the different livestock species in different districts and the quantities of each livestock species per 100 inhabitants was calculated. Another part of the table describes the relations between different cattle species. “To clarify the business side of the development of the livestock sector in the last part of the study the stock of cattle of the different species is presented in relation to each of 100 cattle. Thereby a process was pursued and developed further, which for the first time was used by Th. H. Engelbrecht in his study; "The Country of the building zones except tropical countries". Besides also young cattle was recorded. In addition, the number of foals per 100 horses is given.” (Ritter, a. cit., p 10). Data tables in HISTAT: A. Territory and population A.01 Territory in square kilometers (1813-1925) A.02 Population: Headcount in 1000 (1816-1925) A.03 Population: Headcount on one square kilometer (1816-1925) B. Livestock by regions and districts B.01 Stock of horses, in 1000 animals, per one square kilometer, per 100 inhabitants (1816-1927) B.02 Stock of foals in 1000 animals, per one square kilometer (1873-1927) B.03 Stock of cattle, in 1000 animals, per one square kilometer, per 100 inhabitants (1816-1927) B.04 Stock of cows, in 1000 animals (1816-1927) B05 Stock of young cattle, in 1000 animals, one square kilometer (1873-1927) B.06 Stock of sheep, in 1000 animals, per one square kilometer, per 100 inhabitants (1816-1927) B.07 Stock of pigs, in 1000 animals, per one square kilometer, per 100 inhabitants (1816-1927) B.08 Stock of goats, in 1000 animals, per one square kilometer, per 100 inhabitants (1816-1927) B.09 Stock of chicken, in 1000 animals, per one square kilometer, per 100 inhabitants (1912-1927) C. Ratios: individual livestock species for every 100 cattle by regions and districts C.01 Relation, for every 100 Cattle: Number of cows, number of young cattle, number of horses, number of sheep, number of goats, number of pigs (1816-1927) C.02 Relation, for every 100 horses: number of foals (1873-1927) D. Total overviews for Germany D.01a Development of livestock in Germany, in 1000 animals (1816-1927) D.01b Development of livestock in Germany, on one square kilometer (1816-1927) D.01c Development of livestock in Germany, on 100 inhabitants (1816-1927) D.02 Relation cattle and relation for horses (1816-1927)
Temporal Coverage
  • 1816 / 1927
    1816 to 1927
Geographic Coverage
  • Germany in the borders from 1816 to 1917. German Länder: Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Wuerttemberg, Baden, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Brunswick, Anhalt, Lippe, Schaumburg-Lippe, Waldeck, Hamburg, Bremen, Luebeck, Thuringia, Alsace-Lorraine. Further definition of the geographical area: in the case of Prussia and Bavaria the administrative desrict resp. regional government destrict; in the case of Saxony the provincial government; in the case of Wuerttemberg the district; in the case of Baden the district commissioner; for Hesse the province; in the case of Oldenburg the region, and in the case of Alsace-Lorraine the district. For the remaining territories no further subdivision was made.
  • Historical German lands (-1871) (DQDE)
  • German Reich (1871-1945) (DXDE)
Collection Mode
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Text Unit
    Number of Units: 111
    Number of Variables: 2605
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA8493 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • Ritter, Kurt, 1929: die Entwicklung des deutschen Viehbestandes seit Anfang des 19. Jahrhunderts. Agrarpolitische Aufsätze und Vorträge (Kurt Ritter), 13. Heft. Berlin: Parey.

Update Metadata: 2017-12-29 | Issue Number: 80 | Registration Date: 2011-06-27

Ritter, Kurt (2011): Die Entwicklung des Viehbestandes in Deutschland von 1816 bis 1927.. Version: 1.0.0. GESIS Datenarchiv. Dataset.