Agricultural production in Germany, 1800 to 1950.

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • Bittermann, Eberhard
Publication Date
  • ZA:
    • Historical Studies Data
  • Abstract

    In the period of 1800 to 1950 germany’s population grew from ca. 24 million to ca. 67 million inhabitants. The population thus enlarged nearly threefold, relating to the agricultural area it has even quadrupled. Although the additional change of food patterns led to an increase of the need of agricultural products necessary for the people’s nutrition, it succeeded to guarantee the supply of the German population predominantly with food from domestic production. This fact rises the question about the extend of production increase in the German agriculture in the last 150 years. In the context of this work the researcher tries to describe agricultural production by using an applicative criterion, which permits reliable comparisons between the different products. The period of investigation starts with 1800, because at this time a sufficient quantity of statistical material is available and the change of agricultural way of production took place (abolition of the three-field-crop-rotation, new kinds of plants and fruits). In the context of this study first the development of agricultural land use by sort of plants is described, then the hectar-output is calculated, and finally the livestock, the output per animal, and the total animal production is analysed. Topics Datatables in HISTAT: A. Development of agricultural land use and crop production A.1 Primary types of agricultural land use 1800 to 1950 A.2 Development of agrigaltural models of land-use 1800 to 1949 A.3 Farmland conditions 1800-1950 A.4 Change in farmland conditions 1800-1950 A.5 Development of farmland’s hectar-outcomes in Germany 1846-1951 A.6 Farmland’s production in Germany 1800-1950 B. Development of animal production B.1 Development of livestock in Germany 1800-1950 B.2 Livestock and inhabitants per 100 hectare cropland-use 1800-1950 B.3 Stock density in head per 100 inhabitants 1800-1952 B.4 Slaughter weight 1800-1945/51 B.5 Development of slaughter ratio 1800-1937 B.6 Development of slaughter ratio of cattles and calves (in %) 1800-1949 B.7 Meat production 1800-1950 B.8 Development of milk-production 1800-1950 B.9 Development of goat’s milk production 1800-1950 B.10 Development of wools production 1800-1950 B.11 Development of poultry farming 1800_1950 B.12 Total production of livestock breeding 1800-1950 C. total agricultural production C.1 Farmland-Production C.1.1 Consumption of forage 1800-1950 C.1.2 Use of crop-land products in Germany 1800-1950 C.1.3 Gross-crop-land-production in Germany 1800-1950 C.1.4 Classification of gross-crop-land-production into self-consumption and net-crop-land-production 1800-1949/51 C.1.5 Estimated gross-crop-land-production 1800-1949/51 C.2 total production C.2.1 Development of total german agricultural production 1800-1950 C.2.2 Capacity of agricultural production in Germany 1800-1950 D. Productivity of cropland and labor D.1 Development of crop-land production and of agricultural use 1800-1949/51 D.2 Index of hectar-outcomse 1800-1949/51 D.3.a Yearly growth of crop-production 1800-1949/51 D.3.b Yearly growth of crop-production (different classification of time-intervalls) 1800-1950 D.4 Production of animal products 1800-1949/51 D.5a Average yearly growth of animal products 1800-1949/51 D.5b Average yearly growth of animal products (different classification of time-intervalls) 1800-1950 D.6 Development of agricultural employment and productivity per employee 1800-1950 D.7 Mineral fertiliser consumption 1878/80-1950/51 D.8 Development of dung production 1800-1950 D.9 Development of Entwicklung der total nutritive substance supply 1878-1938 E. Agricultural productivity and population growth E.1 Overview of the population-development and for the population’s food supply available agricultural effective area in Germany 1800 to 1950 E.2 Total production of agricultural goods per capita of the population 1800-1949/51 E.3 Yearly population growth and agricultural production relating to the agricultural effecitve area 1800-1949/51
Temporal Coverage
  • 1800 / 1950
Geographic Coverage
  • German Reich (1871-1945) (DXDE)
  • Germany (DE)
  • 1800 – 1913: Area of the German Empire within the boarders of 1913. 1925 – 1935/1938: Area of the German Empire within the boarders of 1937. 1949/51: Area of post-war-Germany (area of the four occupied zones).
Collection Mode
  • Sources: Official Statistics, scientific publications. A detailed list of used sources, documents and notes is available via the downloadable document ZA8310_Literatur- Quellen-und-Anmerkungen.pdf.
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Text Unit
    Number of Units: 150
    Number of Variables: 456
To the years 1813 and 1835/38: Due to the changes of territory in consequence of the two world wars a further computation with other territorial boarders was accomplished: For 1913 within the borders of 1937 and for 1935/1938 within the borders of postwar Germany the values are specified in the notes of the respective tables and/or time series (second calculation).
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA8310 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • Bittermann, Eberhard, 1956: Die landwirtschaftliche Produktion in Deutschland 1800-1950. Ein methodischer Beitrag zur Ermittlung der Veränderungen des Umfanges der landwirtschaftlichen Produktion und der Ertragssteigerung in den letzten 150 Jahren.

Update Metadata: 2021-04-07 | Issue Number: 75 | Registration Date: 2010-07-23