CSES Module 5 Advanced Release 2

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • The Comparative Study of Electoral Systems
Publication Date
  • Müller, Wolfgang C. (University of Vienna, Austria) (Researcher)
  • Kritzinger, Sylvia (University of Vienna, Austria) (Researcher)
  • Boomgaarden, Hajo (University of Vienna, Austria) (Researcher)
  • Segovia, Caroline (Universidad Diego Portales, Chile) (Researcher)
  • Gamboa, Ricardo (Universidad de Chile, Chile) (Researcher)
  • Wessels, Bernhard (WZB (Berlin Social Science Center), Germany) (Researcher)
  • Schön, Harald (University of Mannheim, Germany) (Researcher)
  • Rossteutscher, Sigrid (Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany) (Researcher)
  • Schmitt-Beck, Rüdiger (University of Mannheim, Germany) (Researcher)
  • Wolf, Christof (GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Germany) (Researcher)
  • Andreadis, Ioannis (Aristotle University Thessaloniki, Greece) (Researcher)
  • Chadjipadelis, Theodore (Aristotle University Thessaloniki, Greece) (Researcher)
  • Teperoglou, Eftichia (Aristotle University Thessaloniki, Greece) (Researcher)
  • Pang-Kwong, Li (Lingnan University, Hong Kong) (Researcher)
  • Enyedi, Zsolt (Central European University, Hungary) (Researcher)
  • Todosijevic, Bojan (Institute of Social Sciences, Serbia) (Researcher)
  • Littvay, Levente (Central European University, Hungary) (Researcher)
  • Marsh, Michael (Trinity College Dublin, Ireland) (Researcher)
  • Segatti, Paolo (University of Milan, Italy) (Researcher)
  • Vegetti, Federico (University of Milan, Italy) (Researcher)
  • Ramonaite, Aine (Vilnius University, Lithuania) (Researcher)
  • Komar, Olivera (De Facto Consultancy and University of Montenegro, Montenegro) (Researcher)
  • Zivkovic, Slaven (De Facto Consultancy and University of Montenegro, Montenegro) (Researcher)
  • Malesevic, Iva (De Facto Consultancy, Montenegro) (Researcher)
  • Kandic, Stevan (De Facto Consultancy, Montenegro) (Researcher)
  • Batricevic, Nemanja (Central European University Budapest, Hungary) (Researcher)
  • Stankov, Nemanja (Central European University Budapest, Hungary) (Researcher)
  • Lee, Nam Young (Korean Social Science Data Center, South Korea) (Researcher)
  • Kim, Wook (Paichai University, South Korea) (Researcher)
  • Huang, Chi (National Chengchi University, Taiwan) (Researcher)
  • Hutchings, Vincent (University of Michigan, United States) (Researcher)
  • Brader, Ted (University of Michigan, United States) (Researcher)
  • Debell, Matthew (Stanford University, United States) (Researcher)
  • Donakowski, Darrell (University of Michigan, United States) (Researcher)
  • Iyengar, Shanto (Stanford University, United States) (Researcher)
  • IPR Umfrageforschung Dr. Richard Költringer, Wien, Austria (Data Collector)
  • Feedback organization from Santiago, Chile (Data Collector)
  • Infratest dimap Gesellschaft für Trend- und Wahlforschung GmbH, Berlin, Germany (Data Collector)
  • Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Political Sciences, Thessaloniki, Greece (Data Collector)
  • Public Governance Programme, Hong Kong (Data Collector)
  • Median Opinion and Market Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary (Data Collector)
  • RED C Research & Marketing Ltd., Dublin, Ireland (Data Collector)
  • Demetra Opinioni.net, Venezia, Italy (Data Collector)
  • Baltic Surveys Ltd., Vilnius, Lithuania (Data Collector)
  • De Facto Consultancy, Montenegro (Data Collector)
  • Korean Social Science Data Center, Seoul, Korea (Data Collector)
  • Election Study Center at the National Chengchi University, Taiwan (Data Collector)
  • Westat, Inc., Rockville, Maryland, USA (Data Collector)
  • ZA:
    • Political Attitudes and Behavior
  • CESSDA Topic Classification:
    • Mass political behaviour, attitudes/opinion
    • Elections
  • Abstract

    The Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES) is a collaborative program of research among election study teams from around the world. Participating countries include a common module of survey questions in their post-election studies. The resulting data are deposited along with voting, demographic, district and macro variables. The studies are then merged into a single, free, public dataset for use in comparative study and cross-level analysis. The CSES project focuses on respondents´ behavior and attitudes during the time of a national election, with a particular emphasis on voting and turnout. Each CSES Module consists of a nationally-representative post-election survey and additional variables about the context of the overall country and electoral system within which the respondents find themselves. Every five years a new CSES Module is designed with a different substantive theme selected to address essential questions in electoral studies and social science. CSES Module 5 focuses on the examination of so-called ´populist attitudes´ in the population and how they shape electoral behavior. It focuses on the the measurement of three core themes: attitudes towards political elites, attitudes towards representative democracy and majority rule, and attitudes towards out-groups. More information regarding the theme of Module 5 can be found in the CSES Module 5 Theoretical Statement available on the CSES website. Topics: MICRO-LEVEL DATA: Identification and study administration variables: weighting factors; election type; date of election 1st and 2nd round; study timing (post-election study, pre-election and post-election study, between rounds of majoritarian election); study context (CSES conducted as part of a larger study or as stand-alone study); mode of interview; self-selection into mode of interview; duration of interview; interviewer ID; sex of interviewer; number of days fieldwork started after the election; duration of fieldwork; date questionnaire administered; number of days the interview was conducted after the 1st and 2nd round of election; language of questionnaire administration; questionnaire version. Demography: year and month of birth; sex; education; marital status; union membership; current employment status; main occupation; socio economic status; employment type - public or private; household income; number of persons in household; attendance at religious services; religious denomination; language usually spoken at home; region of residence; race; ethnicity; rural or urban residence; primary electoral district; country of birth; migration background. Survey variables: political interest; interest in politics in the media; internal efficacy; attitude towarnds political elites; attitude towards out-groups (minorities should adapt to the customs and traditions of the country, the will of the majority should always prevail, immigrants are generally good the country’s economy, country’s culture is generally harmed by immigrants, immigrants increase crime rates); criteria for national identity (e.g. born in country, ancestry, to be able to speak country national languages, to follow customs and traditions of the country); spread of corruption; government action: government should take measures to reduce differences in income levels; attitude towards redistribution; evaluation of the government’s performance in general; any of the parties that represents respondent’s views; party that represents respondent’s views best; state of economy; respondent cast a ballot at the current and the previous election; vote choice (presidential, lower house and upper house elections) at the current and the previous election; respondent cast candidate preference vote at the current election; vote choice for the outgoing government in the current main election; difference who is in power and who people vote for; sympathy scale for selected parties and political leaders; assessment of parties on the left-right-scale and/or an optional alternative scale; self-assessment on a left-right-scale and an optional alternative scale; satisfaction with democracy; closeness to any political party; party identification; party the respondent feels closest to; intensity of party identification. DISTRICT-LEVEL DATA: number of seats contested in electoral district/ nationwide electoral district; number of candidates (district/ nationwide electoral district); number of party lists (district/ nationwide electoral district); percent vote of different parties (electoral district/ nationwide electoral district); official voter turnout in electoral district/ nationwide electoral district. MACRO-LEVEL DATA: size of electorate or population in the electoral district /nationwide electoral district; election outcomes by parties in current (lower house/upper house) legislative election; percent of seats in lower house received by parties in current lower house/upper house election; percent of seats in upper house received by parties in current lower house/upper house election; percent of votes received by presidential candidate of parties in current elections; electoral turnout (as a percentage of registered voters/ of the voting age of population); electoral management: electoral administration model (independent body, government, mixed); compulsory voter registration; kind of voting operations; party of the president and the prime minister before and after the election; number of portfolios held by each party in cabinet, prior to and after the most recent election; size of the cabinet after the most recent election; ideological families of parties; left-right position of parties assigned by experts and alternative dimensions; populism by party; populism-scale of parties; most salient factors in the election; fairness of the election; formal complaints against national level results; election irregularities reported; scheduled and held date of election; irregularities of election date; extent of election violence and post-election violence; geographic concentration of violence; post-election protest; electoral alliances permitted during the election campaign; electoral alliances in practice; did any electoral alliances form; requirements for joint party lists; possibility of apparentement and types of apparentement agreements; multi-party endorsements on ballot; votes cast; voting procedure; voting rounds; party lists close, open, or flexible; transferable votes; cumulated votes if more than one can be cast; compulsory voting; party threshold; unit for the threshold; freedom house rating; age of the current regime; regime: type of executive; number of months since last lower house and last presidential election; electoral formula for presidential elections; electoral formula in all electoral tiers (majoritarian, proportional or mixed); for lower and upper houses was coded: number of electoral segments; linked electoral segments; dependent formulae in mixed systems; subtypes of mixed electoral systems; district magnitude (number of members elected from each district); number of secondary and tertiary electoral districts; number of seats above the first segment (lower house); fused vote; size of the lower house; constitutional federal structure; number of legislative chambers; percentage of women in parliament; party funding: direct or indirect public funding; number of parties participating in election; effective number of electoral parties and parliamentary parties; direct democracy (referendum mandatory, optional, by citizen initiative, referendum result binding or consultive); freedom house’s rating of freedom in the country at three time periods (the election year, one year before election, and two years before election); democracy-autocracy polity IV rating; Gini coefficient of equalized disposable income in the year of election; GDP growth (annual percent – World Bank-); GDP per capita; inflation, GDP Deflator (annual percent); Central Government debt, total (percent GDP); Human development index; total population; unemployment rate (percent of total labor force); unemployment rate for people aged 15-24 years (percent of total labor force); country is subject to International Monetary Fund conditionality at election; Transparency International corruption perception index; control of corruption index; expert judgment of public sector: firms that provide the most favorable kickbacks to public servants; public sector employees and how the treat society; frequency that public sector employees treat cases impartially, and strive to follow rules; net migration rate (2000-2005, 2005-2010, 2010-2015, 2015-2020); population by citizenship: percentage of population who are citizens, foreigners, unknown citizenship status; linguistic fractionalization index; religious fractionalization index, ethnic fractionalization index; polity fragmentation index; percentage of individuals using the internet; mobile phone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants; fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants; party identification codes from the Manifesto Research on Political Representation project (MARPOR/CMP); party identification codes from the Parliament and Government Database (ParlGov) project.
Temporal Coverage
  • 2016 / 2021
  • 2017-10-19 / 2017-11-30
  • 2017-12-18 / 2018-01-31
  • 2017-09-25 / 2017-11-30
  • 2015-10-29 / 2016-02-29
  • 2016-09-06 / 2016-09-18
    Hong Kong
  • 2018-04-23 / 2018-05-05
  • 2016-03-01 / 2016-03-06
  • 2018-03-08 / 2018-05-02
  • 2016-11-11 / 2016-12-10
  • 2016-12-08 / 2017-01-16
  • 2016-04-14 / 2016-04-20
    South Korea
  • 2016-01-17 / 2016-04-21
  • 2016-11-09 / 2017-01-09
    United States
Geographic Coverage
  • Austria (AT)
  • Chile (CL)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Greece (GR)
  • Hong Kong (CN-91)
  • Hungary (HU)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Lithuania (LT)
  • Montenegro (ME)
  • Korea, Republic of (KR)
  • Taiwan (CN-71)
  • United States (US)
Sampled Universe
All persons of eligible voting age and eligible to vote in the national election
Probability; Sampling Procedure Comment: Sampling procedures differ across countries. In most cases multistage stratified cluster sampling or stratified systematic random sampling was used.
Time Dimension
  • Cross-section
Collection Mode
  • Face-to-face interview: CAPI/CAMI
  • Face-to-face interview: PAPI
  • Telephone interview: CATI
  • Self-administered questionnaire: Paper
  • Self-administered questionnaire: Web-based
  • Individual level: Modes of data collection differ across countries. A standardized questionnaire was administered in face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews or as fixed form self-administered questionnaire. Country level: Expert survey using fixed form self-administered questionnaire.
Data and File Information
  • Number of Variables: 526
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA7557 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.7804/cses.module5.2019-05-21

Update Metadata: 2021-04-07 | Issue Number: 15 | Registration Date: 2020-05-14