Security and Defence Policy Opinions in Germany 1999

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • Zentrum für Militärgeschichte und Sozialwissenschaften der Bundeswehr (ZMSBw), Potsdam
Publication Date
  • INRA Deutschland, Mölln (Data Collector)
  • ZA:
    • International Institutions, Relations, Conditions
    • Political Issues
    • Political Attitudes and Behavior
    • Armed Forces, Defense, Military Affairs
    • Occupation, Profession
    • Society, Culture
    • Person, Personality, Role
  • CESSDA Topic Classification:
    • Employment
    • Migration
    • International politics and organisation
    • Conflict, security and peace
    • Mass political behaviour, attitudes/opinion
    • Psychology
  • Abstract

    The subject of the present study was the perception of threats, attitudes towards security policy, the role and image of the Federal Armed Forces and their soldiers, the profession of soldier, tasks of the Federal Armed Forces and foreign missions of the Federal Armed Forces, the role of compulsory military service, military cooperation in Europe, attitudes towards foreigners and homosexuality as well as psycho-social profilitems. Topics: Potential applicants: respondents under 25 years of age were asked: soldier´s profession in the Federal Armed Forces is conceivable; female soldiers´ profession in the music or medical services of the Federal Armed Forces is conceivable; female soldiers´ profession also conceivable in areas reserved for men only. 1. Perception of security and threat: personal feeling of security; personal significance of various aspects of security (e.g. workplace, military attacks, social security, income, ecological security, etc.); feeling of being threatened by environmental degradation, violence by other people, poverty, crime, unemployment, wars or military conflicts in the world, right-wing extremism, financial problems, new technologies (e.g. genetic engineering), diseases (e.g. AIDS), population growth, nuclear weapons, left-wing extremism, lack of data protection, nuclear power plants, foreign infiltration, communism, terrorism, drugs/drug addiction; probability of a military threat to Germany; the three greatest risks to security in Germany and Europe (open); suitability of various institutions and instruments to protect Germany from military risks (NATO membership, others/ new treaties with neighbouring countries, United Nations, WEU, Federal Armed Forces, European Army, general disarmament, OSCE). 2. Security policy attitudes, foreign deployments of the Federal Armed Forces: Germany´s role in the world: preference for a rather active vs. rather passive international policy of Germany; approved or rejected measures for international action by Germany (e.g. aid with food and medicine, aid of a financial and economic nature, technical aid by civil organisations, peacekeeping deployment of the Federal Armed Forces within the framework of a UN mission, etc.); general attitude towards the Federal Armed Forces. 3. Assessment of public institutions: Institutional trust (Federal Constitutional Court, other courts, police, Bundesrat, state government, Federal Armed Forces, Bundestag, television, press, churches, trade unions, federal government, school system, universities, political parties). 4. Personal relationship to the Federal Armed Forces: Federal Armed Forces barracks in the residential area; family member or closer relative or friend is a soldier; respondent himself/herself, son or daughter is currently doing military service with the Federal Armed Forces or has done military service with the Federal Armed Forces/ NVA, is/was a temporary or professional soldier with the Federal Armed Forces/ NVA or is doing civilian service/ has done civilian service. 5. Role and image of the Federal Armed Forces and their soldiers: Approval of statements about the Federal Armed Forces (the Federal Armed Forces has comparatively modern weapons, in terms of equipment the Federal Armed Forces can cope with any emergency, German soldiers are well trained for a possible military mission, training in the Federal Armed Forces as good preparation for deployment in the event of natural disasters, good career opportunities for temporary soldiers in the free economy, discipline and order prevail in the Federal Armed Forces, command and obedience are the basic principles of military leadership in the Federal Armed Forces, soldiers often discuss the execution of orders with superiors, genuine camaraderie can be found in the Federal Armed Forces, soldiers also undertake many things together in their leisure time, in the Federal Armed Forces one is easily tempted to drink a lot of alcohol, German soldiers are masters of their craft, one can rely on the Federal Armed Forces in an emergency, in international missions of the Federal Armed Forces the German soldiers do their jobs just as well as other soldiers, in an emergency many soldiers of the Federal Armed Forces would try everything not to have to go into action, the Federal Armed Forces would not be up to an attack on Germany alone, in an attack on Germany the Federal Armed Forces would strike back the enemy, to ward off an attack on Germany the Federal Armed Forces needs the help of allies); mention of Federal Armed Forces ranks; opinion on increasing defence expenditure; opinion on increasing the number of Federal Armed Forces soldiers; total number of Federal Armed Forces soldiers. 6. Tasks of the Federal Armed Forces: Preferences with regard to the tasks of the Federal Armed Forces (tasks of international arms control, fight against international terrorism, fight against international drug trafficking, border security against illegal immigrants, tasks in the field of environmental protection, international disaster relief, humanitarian aid and rescue services, reconstruction and development aid, international military advice, Combat operations on behalf of international organisations, peacekeeping operations on behalf of international organisations, protection of the constitutional order in Germany, participation in celebrations and ceremonies, education and character building, defence of Germany, defence of allies, training in civilian professions, assistance to threatened friendly nations, evacuation of Germans from crisis areas). 7. Attitude towards compulsory military service: preferences for women´s service in the Federal Armed Forces (still voluntary medical or music service, voluntary in other areas without weapons, voluntary also with weapons); reputation of selected professions; characterisation of professional soldiers and of police officers on the basis of selected qualities (e.g. courageous - cowardly, industrious - lazy, intelligent - stupid, disciplined - chaotic, etc.) ); positive or negative attitude towards military service; opinion on compulsory military service for women; military or civilian service more important for society; opinion on the right to conscientious objection to military service; attitude towards military service (important civic duty, personal contribution to peacekeeping, wasted time, military service is easier than civilian service, military service is more often refused because civilian service is possible at the place of residence, impairment of individual freedom, military service should be abolished); estimated duration of military service; future of the Federal Armed Forces (militia army, purely professional army, current mix of conscripts, professional and temporary soldiers should be maintained, Federal Armed Forces should be abolished); agreement on statements on conscription, conscript army and professional army (e.g. conscription army is cheaper than a professional army, professional army is particularly attractive for young men with an increased propensity to violence, etc.); opinion on military chaplains; preferences with regard to the tasks of military chaplains (e.g. none - separation of church and Federal Armed Forces, care of soldiers during military missions, care of soldiers on site and in barracks, care of relatives of soldiers, etc.); opinion on exemption from compulsory military service for those persecuted by the Nazi regime. 8. Military cooperation in Europe, foreign missions of the Federal Armed Forces: familiarity of various units with soldiers from different nations (e.g. German-French Brigade, Eurocorps, German-American Corps, etc.) ; attitude towards Americans, Arabs, Belgians, Bulgarians, Chinese, Danes, Germans, Englishmen, French, Israelis, Italians, Japanese, Jews, Canadians, Luxembourgers, Dutch, Norwegians, Austrians, Poles, Romanians, Russians, Swedes, Swiss, Sinti/ Roma, Slovaks, Slovenes, Czechs, Turks, Ukrainians, Hungarians and Vietnamese; Opinion on military cooperation with various countries (USA, France, Netherlands, Great Britain, Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Ukraine, Israel, Poland, Czech Republic, Austria, Switzerland, Hungary, Russia, Sweden, Norway, Bulgaria and Romania); opinion on a European army; opinion on NATO; evaluation of NATO´s involvement in Bosnia; evaluation of the Federal Armed Forces´ participation in air attacks on Yugoslavia; opinion on the future participation of the Federal Armed Forces in NATO military actions; opinion on the participation of the Federal Armed Forces in the NATO task force in Kosovo (KFOR) Opinion on the admission of Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary to NATO; support or rejection of NATO membership by various countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Macedonia, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Cyprus and Malta); advocacy of various forms of military cooperation between Germany and other NATO member states (NATO should be a purely military alliance, NATO states should cooperate economically, common NATO foreign policy, NATO should cooperate in all possible areas, integration of German troop units into multinational task forces, stationing of troops of other NATO member states in Germany, stationing of German troops in other NATO member states, cooperation in military training, granting of armament aid as well as in joint manoeuvres of national troops); USA dominate NATO; agreement on statements: Germany and Europe are dependent on the USA, Germany and Europe can assert interests in NATO against the USA, influence of the USA and Germany/Europe balance each other out, dominant position of the USA in NATO is good); Kosovo: Trust in information from various institutions and actors (journalists, humanitarian organisations, foreign ministry, ministry of defence, German government, television, soldiers, NATO spokespersons, German government and opposition parties, Kosovo Albanians, Serbs); agreement to various statements on the Kosovo conflict (Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo are equally to blame, caused by Milosevic, caused by NATO, triggered by Serbia, targeted by Albania, German government acted responsibly, more German soldiers should be sent, German humanitarian aid is sufficient); agreement to the statement of the Minister of Defence that Federal Armed Forces have comparatively old equipment; knowledge of the name of the Minister of Defence. 9. Attitudes towards foreigners and homosexuality, personality: Opinion on the naturalisation of late repatriates, and on the naturalisation of foreigners living in Germany after five years; acceptance of late repatriates as Germans or foreigners Attitude towards foreigners (enrich our culture, it should be made clear to the public how foreigners suffer from discrimination here, dangerous degree of alienation by foreigners in Germany, foreigners as partners is conceivable, foreigners living in Germany should adapt their lifestyle to that of Germans, superiority of the white race, I wouldn´t mind being a citizen of another country); Attitude towards homosexuality in general and in the Federal Armed Forces (homosexual couples should be allowed to marry, no matter if someone is homosexual, cooperation with homosexuals is conceivable, homosexuals are socially disadvantaged, unnatural, homosexual couples should be allowed to adopt children, homosexuals make me uncomfortable, homosexuals overemphasise their sexual preferences, are unsuitable as military superiors, homosexuals in the Federal Armed Forces should have equal career opportunities, homosexual soldiers damage the reputation of the Federal Armed Forces); personal contact with foreigners and homosexuals; frequency and opportunity of contact with foreigners and homosexuals (at work, at school, in the neighbourhood, in clubs/communities, among acquaintances, friends, relatives and family); left-right self-classification; party that best corresponds to the personal basic political stance; willingness to take risks (e.g., dangers fascinate me, preferring short violent lives to long, boring lives, etc.); attitude towards driving (e.g. expresses superiority, aggression against others, etc.); characteristics of men and of women; mastery of risky situations; frequency of different feelings (helpless, superfluous, sad, lonely, exhausted, overstrained, tense, angry, angry). Demography: Sex; age (year of birth); education; additional vocational training; occupation; occupational group; net household income; number of persons contributing to household income; marital status; denomination; residential environment (degree of urbanisation); city size; federal state; federal state in which the respondent predominantly grew up; household size; number of persons in the household aged 16 and over, under/over 25. Additionally coded: Respondent ID; day of the interview; interview duration; interview date (day, month); weight.
Temporal Coverage
  • 1999-10-27 / 2000-02-20
Geographic Coverage
  • Germany (DE)
Sampled Universe
Persons aged 16 and over in private households
Time Dimension
  • Cross-section
Collection Mode
  • Face-to-face interview: PAPI
Data and File Information
  • Number of Variables: 463
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA7608 (Type: ZA-No.)

Update Metadata: 2021-04-07 | Issue Number: 17 | Registration Date: 2020-06-12