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Eurobarometer 92.1 (2019)

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • European Commission, Brussels
Other Title
  • Attitudes of Europeans towards Air Quality, and Undeclared work in the European Union (Subtitle)
Publication Date
  • European Commission, Brussels; Directorate General Communication, COMM.A.3 ´Media Monitoring and Eurobarometer´ (Researcher)
  • Kantar Belgium (Kantar TNS), Brussels, Belgium (Data Collector)
  • Kantar TNS BBSS, Sofia, Bulgaria (Data Collector)
  • Kantar CZ, Prague, Czech Republic (Data Collector)
  • Kantar GALLUP, Copenhagen, Denmark (Data Collector)
  • Kantar Deutschland, Munich, Germany (Data Collector)
  • Kantar Emor, Tallinn, Estonia (Data Collector)
  • The Kantar Group UK, London, Ireland (Data Collector)
  • Taylor Nelson Sofres Market Research, Athens, Greece (Data Collector)
  • TNS Investigación de Mercados y Opinión, Madrid, Spain (Data Collector)
  • Kantar Public France, Montrouge, France (Data Collector)
  • Kantar Italia, Milan, Italy (Data Collector)
  • CYMAR Market Research, Nicosia, Cyprus (Data Collector)
  • Kantar TNS Latvia, Riga, Latvia (Data Collector)
  • TNS LT, Vilnius, Lithuania (Data Collector)
  • ILReS, Luxembourg, Luxembourg (Data Collector)
  • Kantar Hoffmann, Budapest, Hungary (Data Collector)
  • MISCO International, Valletta, Malta (Data Collector)
  • TNS NIPO, Amsterdam, Netherlands (Data Collector)
  • Info Research Austria Institut für Markt-und Meinungsforschung, Vienna, Austria (Data Collector)
  • Kantar Polska, Warsaw, Poland (Data Collector)
  • Marktest – Marketing, Organização e Formação, Lisbon, Portugal (Data Collector)
  • Centrul Pentru Studierea Opiniei si Pietei (CSOP), Bucharest, Romania (Data Collector)
  • Institute for market and media research, Mediana DOO, Ljubljana, Slovenia (Data Collector)
  • Kantar Slovakia, Bratislava, Slovakia (Data Collector)
  • Kantar TNS Oy, Espoo, Finland (Data Collector)
  • Kantar Sifo, Stockholm and Gothenburg, Sweden (Data Collector)
  • The Kantar Group UK, London, United Kingdom (Data Collector)
  • HENDAL, Zagreb, Croatia (Data Collector)
  • Kantar Public, Brussels (international co-ordination) (Data Collector)
  • ZA:
    • Legal system, Legislation, Law
    • Work and Industry
    • Technology, Energy
    • Natural Environment, Nature
  • CESSDA Topic Classification:
    • Natural environment
    • Environmental degradation/pollution and protection
    • Labour and employment
    • Crime
  • Abstract

    Since the early 1970s the European Commission´s Standard & Special Eurobarometer are regularly monitoring the public opinion in the European Union member countries. Principal investigators are the Directorate-General Communication and on occasion other departments of the European Commission or the European Parliament. Over time, candidate and accession countries were included in the Standard Eurobarometer Series. Selected questions or modules may not have been surveyed in each sample. Please consult the basic questionnaire for more information on country filter instructions or other questionnaire routing filters. In this study the following modules are included: 1. Attitudes of Europeans towards air quality, 2. Undeclared work in the European Union. Topics: 1. Attitudes of Europeans towards air quality: self-rated knowledge about problems of air quality in the own country; development of air quality in the own country over the last ten years; assessment of each of the following issues as a serious problem: respiratory diseases, cardio-vascular diseases, asthma and allergy, acidification; most effective ways of tackling problems of air quality: apply stricter pollution controls on industrial and energy-production activities, apply stricter controls on emissions from new vehicles, introduce or maintain traffic restrictions in polluted cities, provide more information to the public on health and environmental consequences of air pollution, provide higher financial incentives, ensure better enforcement of existing air quality legislation, introduce stricter air quality legislation, increase taxation on air-polluting activities, improve or maintain citizens’ access to courts to guarantee clean air, apply stricter controls on emissions from residential heating; sufficient action taken to improve air quality in the own country by: households, farmers, energy producers, car manufacturers, public authorities; preferred level of action in tackling air pollution: international, EU, national, regional or local; personal measures taken to reduce harmful emissions into the air in the last two years; attitude towards additional EU measures; awareness of EU air quality standards; assessment of the appropriateness of the existing standards. 2. Undeclared work in the European Union: acquaintances having an unreported employment; expected sanctions for undeclared work; assessment of the risk of being detected in the own country; trust in the following authorities with regard to tackling undeclared work: tax and social security authorities, labour inspectorate; acceptability of selected behaviours: firms hiring private persons and all or part of the salary is not officially declared, firms hiring other firms and activity is not declared to tax or social security authorities, private households hiring private persons and private person does not declare received payment to tax or social security authorities, firm hired by private household does not declare received payment to tax or social security authorities, private or self-employed person evades taxes by not declaring all or part of his income; use of services and purchase of products supposed to include undeclared work; kind of products or services; recipient of payment; reasons for the purchase on the black market; payment of salary by the employer without payment of taxes; kind of income received without taxes: part of renumeration for regular work, overtime (including extra work or bonuses), both; percentage of annual gross salary which was paid unreported; openness to receive undeclared payments; refusal of undeclared payments in the last twelve months; number of employees of own employer; own undeclared paid activities in the last twelve months; sector of own undeclared paid activities; kind of own undeclared paid activities; arrangement of these activities through a mobile application or an online tool; client; reasons for own undeclared work; extent of own undeclared paid activities; characteristics of own undeclared paid activities: undertaken on own account, undertaken as waged work for an employer, mixture of both waged work and own-account work, undertaken for a partner or family business, other; own employment and wages: no formal written contract, fixed cash supplement to official declared wage, variable cash supplement to official declared wage, variable payment depending on total numbers of hours worked with only a fixed amount being declared, fixed payment plus occasional undeclared payments, dominant client provides at least 75 % of personal income, personal authority to make business decisions, payment of weekly or monthly fee, employees, personal authority to hire or dismiss employees; estimated percentage of the population in the own country doing undeclared work. Demography: age; nationality; life satisfaction; frequency of discussions about political matters on national, European, and local level; occupation; professional position; countries of work experience; left-right self-placement; marital status; sex; age at end of education; type of community; household composition and household size; own a mobile phone and fixed (landline) phone; financial difficulties during the last year; internet use (at home, at work, at school); self-reported belonging to the working class, the middle class or the upper class of society. Additionally coded was: respondent ID; country; date of interview; time of the beginning of the interview; duration of the interview; number of persons present during the interview; respondent cooperation; size of locality; region; language of the interview; nation group; weighting factor.
Temporal Coverage
  • 2019-09-11 / 2019-09-29
  • 2019-09-11 / 2019-09-22
  • 2019-09-12 / 2019-09-23
  • 2019-09-12 / 2019-09-24
    Czech Republic
  • 2019-09-11 / 2019-09-26
  • 2019-09-11 / 2019-09-25
  • 2019-09-11 / 2019-09-23
  • 2019-09-11 / 2019-09-22
  • 2019-09-12 / 2019-09-22
  • 2019-09-11 / 2019-09-23
  • 2019-09-11 / 2019-09-22
  • 2019-09-13 / 2019-09-24
  • 2019-09-11 / 2019-09-22
  • 2019-09-11 / 2019-09-20
  • 2019-09-12 / 2019-09-29
  • 2019-09-11 / 2019-09-23
  • 2019-09-11 / 2019-09-23
  • 2019-09-12 / 2019-09-23
  • 2019-09-11 / 2019-09-23
  • 2019-09-11 / 2019-09-22
  • 2019-09-12 / 2019-09-22
  • 2019-09-12 / 2019-09-23
  • 2019-09-12 / 2019-09-23
  • 2019-09-12 / 2019-09-23
  • 2019-09-11 / 2019-09-23
  • 2019-09-12 / 2019-09-23
  • 2019-09-11 / 2019-09-23
  • 2019-09-11 / 2019-09-22
  • 2019-09-11 / 2019-09-22
    United Kingdom
Geographic Coverage
  • Austria (AT)
  • Belgium (BE)
  • Bulgaria (BG)
  • Cyprus (CY)
  • Czech Republic (CZ)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Estonia (EE)
  • Spain (ES)
  • Finland (FI)
  • France (FR)
  • United Kingdom (GB-UKM)
  • Greece (GR)
  • Croatia (HR)
  • Hungary (HU)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Lithuania (LT)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Latvia (LV)
  • Malta (MT)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Poland (PL)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Romania (RO)
  • Sweden (SE)
  • Slovenia (SI)
  • Slovakia (SK)
Sampled Universe
Population of the respective nationalities of the European Union Member States and other EU nationals, resident in any of the 28 Member States and aged 15 years and over.
Probability Sample: Multistage Sample
Collection Mode
  • Face-to-face interview
  • Face-to-face interview Face-to-face interview: CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interview)
Data and File Information
  • Number of Variables: 536
Question module QA is currently under embargo. Question module QB is currently under embargo. Question module QC ´Attitudes of Europeans towards Air Quality´ partly replicates questions asked in the context of Eurobarometer 88.1 (ZA6925) and Flash Eurobarometer 360 (ZA5795). Question module QD ´Undeclared work in the European Union´ partly replicates questions asked in the context of Eurobarometer 79.2 (ZA5688). No data are available for protocol items p8 (postal code), p9 (sample point number), p10 (interviewer number) and p11.
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA7579 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • Internationale Umfrageprogramme (Type: FDZ)
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.4232/1.13432
  • European Commission: Special Eurobarometer 497. Attitudes of Europeans towards Air Quality. Conducted by Kantar Public at the request of Directorate-General for Environment. Survey co-ordinated by the Directorate-General for Communication (DG COMM ´Media monitoring and Eurobarometer´ Unit). Brussels, November 2019.
  • European Commission: Special Eurobarometer 498. Undeclared work in the European Union. Conducted by Kantar Public at the request of Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion. Survey co-ordinated by the Directorate-General for Communication (DG COMM ´Media monitoring and Eurobarometer´ Unit). Brussels, February 2020.

Update Metadata: 2020-06-17 | Issue Number: 1 | Registration Date: 2020-06-17

European Commission, Brussels (2020): Eurobarometer 92.1 (2019). Attitudes of Europeans towards Air Quality, and Undeclared work in the European Union. Version: 2.0.0. GESIS Data Archive. Dataset.