Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey (EU-MIDIS II), 2016

Version
1.0.0
Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
Creator
  • European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), Vienna, Austria
Publication Date
2020-07-29
Contributor
  • Latcheva, Rossalina (Fair and Equal Societies, Research and Data Unit, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (Project Manager)
  • Ipsos MORI, United Kingdom (Data Collector)
Language
German
Classification
  • ZA:
    • Social Policy
    • Society, Culture
  • CESSDA Topic Classification:
    • Society and culture
    • Crime
    • Equality and inequality
    • Minorities
Description
  • Abstract

    The second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey (EU-MIDIS II) was carried out by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) in 2016 as a follow-up of the first–ever major survey on minorities’ and immigrants’ experiences with discrimination and criminal victimisation, which the Agency conducted in 2008. The EU-MIDIS II survey collected information from 25,515 respondents with different ethnic minority and immigrant backgrounds, including Roma, across all EU Member States (in 2016, EU-28 including the United Kingdom). It provides valuable information on how the situation developed since the first EU-MIDIS survey in 2008 - covering additional areas such as citizenship, residence, participation, trust and tolerance. EU-wide comparable equality data, as collected through the EU-MIDIS surveys, can be used to monitor the situation on the ground and support institutions on the level of the EU and the Member States in identifying gaps in the protection of the fundamental rights of people with an immigrant or ethnic minority background. It also allows for populating core indicators for measuring progress in the implementation of the EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies as well as selected indicators on immigrant integration, for example, in the areas of ‘welcoming society’ and ‘active citizenship’. The EU-MIDIS II sample is representative for the selected population groups that were surveyed. The sample includes persons belonging to ethnic or national minorities, Roma and Russians, as well as persons born outside the EU (first generation respondents) and persons with at least one parent born outside the EU (second-generation respondents). All respondents were aged 16 years or older, and have lived in private households for at least 12 months before the survey. Person living in institutional settings – for example, in hospitals or prisons - were not surveyed. Countries/regions of origin of immigrants and descendants of immigrants include Turkey, North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia (in Cyprus, Asia); in Slovenia and Poland, individuals who immigrated to the EU in the past 10 years were included regardless of country of origin. Groups to be surveyed in each of the countries were selected based on multiple criteria, including the size of the target population, feasibility of carrying out a survey with the respective target population in terms of costs and accessibility, the risk of specific groups of experiencing ‘racially’, ‘ethnically’ or ‘religiously’ motivated discrimination and victimisation, their vulnerability for being at risk of social exclusion and lastly the comparability with previous FRA surveys. Target groups included in EU MIDIS II survey are immigrants and descendants of immigrants from North Africa; immigrants and descendants of immigrants from Turkey; immigrants and descendants of immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa; immigrants and descendants of immigrants from Asia and South Asia; recent immigrants; Roma; members of the Russian minority. The fieldwork was carried out between September 2015 and September 2016 by Ipsos MORI under the supervision of FRA staff, who monitored compliance with strict quality control procedures. The questionnaire contains questions on perceived discrimination in different settings, such as employment, education, housing, health and when using public or private services. It also covers police stops, criminal victimization (including hate crime) as well as awareness of rights and of institutions that offer victim support. In addition, respondents were asked about issues of societal participation and integration, including trust in public institutions and their level of attachment to the country of residence. Topics: 1. Introduction, Household and child grid: number of persons living in the household; age; sex; employment situation; form of employment (full-time, part-time); year of migration; number of citizenships; respondent has the citizenship of the survey country; other country citizenship(s); year in which country citizenship was obtained; highest level of completed education; years spent in education; current attendance of school or vocational training; type of school or training currently attended; main reason for not continuing school; relationship to respondent 1 (household member only); household member has a roma background/ a russian background; work of household member in the last four weeks; child grid: regular attendance of childcare; current school attendance; attendance of special school; main reasons for choosing this school; amount of Roma classmates; did the child do any work in the last 4 weeks; kind of work; hours the child works per week; paid work; housing and living standard: number of rooms in accommodation; housing tenure (own or rent); facilities in accommodation (e.g. tap water, a kitchen, indoor toilet, etc.); household can afford to keep its home adequately warm; problems with accommodation (e.g. it is too dark, leaking roof or damp walls, etc.). 2. Rights awareness, perceptions and attitudes: attitudes: level of attachment to the neighborhood, to the village, town or city, to the country; to the survey country, and to the European Union; self-identification ( European, survey country national, Roma/Russian,/country national of country of birth, country national of country of birth of mother and father; perceptions of discrimination: extend of discrimination on different grounds in the country based on skin colour, ethnic origin or immigrant background, religion or religious beliefs; awareness of support organisations to people who have been discriminated against; awareness of equality bodies in the country; right awareness: awareness of anti-discrimination law in the country; awareness of anti-discrimination campaigns in the past 12 months in the country; awareness of the Dost! Campaign – ‘Go beyond stereotypes, meet the Roma’; frequency of worry about experiencing harassment when out in public; avoidance of certain places for fear of being treated badly. 3. Employment: Unemployment: year when last in work; last job or occupation; currently registered as unemployed; currently looking for work; main reasons for not looking for work; ever looked for work in the country in the past 5 years; experiences of discriminatory job adverts in the country in the past 5 years; experiences of discrimination when looking for work in the past 5 years; date of last experience of discrimination because of ethnic or immigrant background/ Roma background/ ethnic minority background when looking for work; number of experiences of discrimination when looking for work in the past 12 months; main reasons for last experience of discrimination; person or institution to whom the incident was reported; degree of satisfaction with handling of complaint; reasons for non-reporting; at work: current job or occupation; kind of employment contract in main job; having employees; number of employees; correspondence between current job and level of education; average number of working hours per week in the main job; experiences of discrimination at work in the past 5 years; specific experiences of discrimination at work because of ethnic or immigrant background/ Roma background/ ethnic minority background (e.g. given tasks below qualifications, not allowed to join a trade union, etc.); date of last experience of discrimination at work; number of experiences of discrimination at work in the past 12 months; main reasons for last experience of discrimination at work; person or institution to whom the incident was reported; degree of satisfaction with handling of complaint; reasons for non-reporting. 4. Discrimination: Health: subjective assessment of own health condition; longstanding illness or health problems; limitation in daily activities because of a health problem in the past 6 months; national basic health insurance currently covers the health care expenses; additional health insurance coverage; need of medical examination or treatment in the past 12 months; unmet need for medical examination or treatment in the past 12 months; main reason why the respondent did not have a medical examination or treatment; use of healthcare services in the past 5 years; experiences of discrimination when using healthcare services in the past 5 years; date of last experience of discrimination when using healthcare services because of ethnic or immigrant background/ Roma background/ ethnic minority background; number of experiences of discrimination when using healthcare services in the past 12 months; main reasons for last experience of discrimination when using healthcare services; last time the respondent felt discriminated against because of ethnic or immigrant background/ Roma background/ ethnic minority background; person or institution to whom the incident was reported; degree of satisfaction with handling of complaint; reasons for non-reporting; Housing: trying to rent or buy an apartment or a house in the country in the past 5 years; experiences of discrimination when trying to buy an apartment or a house; specific experiences of discrimination because of ethnic or immigrant background/ Roma background/ ethnic minority background (e.g. prevented from renting); number of experiences of discrimination in the past 5 years; main reasons for last experience of discrimination; person or institution to whom the incident was reported; degree of satisfaction with handling of complaint; reasons for non-reporting; Education: highest level of education completed in the country; highest level of education completed in another country; country in which level was completed; current attendance of school or vocational training; type of school/ training; completed years of schooling in total in any country; parent or guardian of child(ren) within national compulsory school age range; contacts with persons from school attended by child(ren) in the past 5 years; experiences of discrimination when in contact with school authorities in the country; specific experiences of discrimination because of ethnic or immigrant background/ Roma background/ ethnic minority background; date of last experience; number of experiences; main reasons for last experience of discrimination; person or institution to whom the incident was reported; degree of satisfaction with handling of complaint; reasons for non-reporting; children’s experiences of discrimination in school because of their ethnic or immigrant background/ Roma background/ ethnic minority background; other services: use of different services in the country in the past 5 years; experiences of discrimination when using different services in the past 5 years and in the past 12 months; reporting of incidents in these situations; person or institution to whom discrimination in education was reported; degree of satisfaction with handling of complaint for discrimination in education; reasons for non-reporting discrimination in education; person or institution to whom discrimination in night club, bar, restaurant or hotel was reported; degree of satisfaction with handling of complaint for discrimination in night club, bar, restaurant or hotel; reasons for non-reporting discrimination in night club, bar, restaurant or hotel; person or institution to whom discrimination at administrative offices or public services war reported; degree of satisfaction with handling of complaint for discrimination at administrative offices or public services; reasons for non-reporting; person or institution to whom discrimination in public transport was reported; degree of satisfaction with handling of complaint for discrimination in public transport; reasons for non-reporting; person or institution to whom discrimination in a shop was reported; degree of satisfaction with handling of complaint for discrimination in a shop; reasons for non-reporting; awareness of experiences of discrimination among friends and family in the past 12 months; corruption: experiences of being asked or expected to pay bribe to government officials in the country in the past 5 years; type of official involved with last experiences of being asked or expected to pay bribe; police stops: experiences of being stopped, searched or questioned by police in the country in the past 5 years and in the past 12 months; context where last experience of being stopped, searched or questioned by police happened; last experience of being stopped related to ethnic or immigrant background; police requests during the last experience of being stopped; degree of respect shown by police during the last experience of being stopped; reporting disrespectful treatment by police; experiences of physical assault by police in the country in the past 5 years and in the past 12 months; reporting last incident of physical assault by police; reasons for non-reporting. 5. Victimisation: frequency of experiences of harassment in the country in the past 5 years; frequency of specific experiences of harassment related to ethnic or immigrant background in the country in the past 5 years and in the past 12 months; last incident of harassment related to ethnic or immigrant background among those mentioned; identity of perpetrator of last incident of harassment; ethnic background of perpetrator of last incident of harassment; reporting last incident of harassment and person or institution to whom the incident was reported; reasons for non-reporting; degree of satisfaction with handling of complaint by police; reporting any incident of harassment related to ethnic or immigrant background in the past 5 years and institution to whom the incident was reported. experiences of violence: frequency of experiences of violence in the country in the past 5 years; frequency of experiences of violence related to ethnic or immigrant background in the country in the past 5 years and in the past 12 months; identity and ethnic background of perpetrator of last incident of violence; reporting last incident of violence and person or institution to whom the incident was reported; reasons for non-reporting; degree of satisfaction with handling of complaint by police; reporting any incident of violence in the past 5 years and institution to whom the incident was reported; awareness or experiences of violence among friends and family because of ethnic minority background in the past 12 months. 6. Societal participation: residence and status: reasons for coming to the country; experiences of not having a valid residence permit; applied for country citizenship in the past; outcome of country citizenship application; reasons for not applying for country citizenship; wish to apply for country citizenship in the future; close family (husband, wife, children) living outside the country; applied for family reunification in the past; outcome of family reunification application; main reason for not applying for family reunification; experiences of living in other countries for more than 3 months, mention of those other countries; possibility of moving to another country in the future; country to which might move in the future; reasons for wanting to live in another country; Participation and group relations: religion; use of traditional or religious clothes different from those typically worn in the country; extent of self-identification as Christian, Muslim, Jew, etc.; only Muslim women: use of headscarf or niqāb outside the house; experiences of victimization related to wearing a headscarf or niqab in the past 12 months, again all: main language(s) spoken at home; self-assessment of proficiency in country language(s) as regards to speaking, reading and writing; attendance of a country language course; main reasons for not attending a country language course; intergroup relations: friends who are of another ethnic minority background, who do not have a minority background, who have a different religion; amount of residents in the neighbourhood of the same ethnic or immigrant background/ Roma background/ ethnic minority background as the respondent; comfort scales about having neighbours with different backgrounds; comfort scales about member of family marrying someone with different backgrounds; comfort scales about acceptance of using physical violence in specific situations; trust and values: extent of agreement with value statements on gender equality; trust in institutions; active citizenship: Extent of interest in politics; actions with political connotations taken in the past 12 months; vote in the last local and national elections in the country or country of citizenship; types of help or support received in the country from a public institution or NGO because of ethnic or immigrant background; respondents belonging to the target group of Roma: assistance of a health mediator when going to the doctor; assistance of a Roma teaching assistant at school for children in the household. 7. Socio-economic background: current marital status; age at (first) marriage; Income: types of income obtained by the household in the past 12 months; main source of income of the household; goods obtained in exchange for work in the past 12 months; remittances sent or brought to family members, relatives or friends llving in the country of birth; Poverty: ability of the household to make ends meet; possession of a bank account; ability of the household to afford certain expenses; inability to pay costs on time in the last 12 months due to financial difficulties; items possessed in the household; unmet need of different items; frequency of food deprivation in the last month. 8. Information about the locations by the interviewer: description of the place where the household lives; entry phone system or locked gate/ door before reaching the door of the target respondent(s); household living in an area that is ethnically segregated. 9. Interviewer questionnaire: financial or other incentive for the interview; location and situation during the interview: place of interview; respondent alone during the interview; persons present during the interview; parts of the questionnaire with presence or participation of other people; respondent’s command of country language; language of the interview; use of translated tools; type of uses translated tool; respondent’s cooperation; respondent’s understanding of questions; reasons for misunderstandings; respondent’s interest in the topics; respondent’s honesty; number of persons selected for the interview in the household; country of birth (immigrants and their descendants); country of birth (recent immigrants); country of birth of mother and father; household and child grid has been completed by the first person selected for the interview; household respondent. Additionally coded: country of interview; degree of urbanisation; type of interview (household interview, location interview); target group; number of completed interviews; sex and ethnicity of the interviewer; country; taget group; weigthing factors; age imputation status; age groups; household type, highest achieved education anywhere, self-declared main activity status; paid work in the last 4 weeks; country and target group; aggregate target groups; respondent ID; household ID; at risk of poverty after social transfers; prevalence of harassment (reasons) in 5 years before the survey; experiences of physical attack in the 5 years before the survey (out of all victims of physical attack); stopped by the police in the past 5 years; last police stop, search or questions because of ethnic or immigrant background, in the past 5 years; several variables on experiences of discrimination because of skin colour, ethnic origin, religion; reported to made a complaint about the last incident of discrimination because of skin colour, ethnic origin, religion; residence and citizenship status; imputation indicator; monthly income in income bands. Derived variables: number of completed interviews in this household; respondent (categorises the respondent into one of four categories - 1st respondent interviewed, 2nd respondent interviewed, HH member - eligible and HH member - not eligible .1st respondent 2nd respondent HH member - eligible HH member - not eligible); generation: first or second generation migrant; HH member categorised as an adult or a child.
Temporal Coverage
  • 2015-09-24 / 2016-09-14
    Varies from country to country; overall duration
Geographic Coverage
  • Austria (AT)
  • Belgium (BE)
  • Bulgaria (BG)
  • Cyprus (CY)
  • Czech Republic (CZ)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Estonia (EE)
  • Greece (GR)
  • Spain (ES)
  • Finland (FI)
  • France (FR)
  • Croatia (HR)
  • Hungary (HU)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Lithuania (LT)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Latvia (LV)
  • Malta (MT)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Poland (PL)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Romania (RO)
  • Sweden (SE)
  • Slovenia (SI)
  • Slovakia (SK)
Sampled Universe
Immigrants, descendants of immigrants and recent immigrants included both citizens and non-citizens of the survey country irrespective of their formal residence status. For the purpose of the survey, the term ‘immigrants and descendants of immigrants’ encompasses the following: - ‘Immigrants’ include persons who were not born in an EU Member State or an European Economic Area (EEA)/European Free Trade Association (EFTA) country (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland), who had their usual place of residence in the territory of the EU Member State where the survey was conducted, and who had been living in the survey country for at least 12 months before the interview. - ‘Descendants of immigrants’ are persons who were born in one of the 28 EU Member States (in 2016 including United Kingdom) or an EEA/EFTA country, whose usual place of residence was in the territory of the EU Member State where the survey was conducted, and who had at least one parent not born in an EU or EEA/ EFTA country (Liechtenstein, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland). - In some EU Member States, EU-MIDIS II interviewed ‘recent immigrants’. These are persons who immigrated to an EU Member State in the 10 years before the survey (i.e. after 2004), whose usual place of residence was in the territory of the EU Member State where the survey was conducted, and who had been living in the survey country for at least 12 months before the interview. The country of birth of ‘recent immigrants’ can be any country outside the EU-28 or an EEA/EFTA country. Ethnic minorities, including Roma and the Russian minority, were included based on their self-identification. Immigrants and descendants of immigrants (often referred to as first- and second-generation respondents) were identified by asking potential respondents about their country of birth and their parents’ country of birth. EU-MIDIS II covered the following groups: • immigrants and descendants of immigrants from North Africa (in BE, ES, FR, IT, NL); • immigrants and descendants of immigrants from Turkey (in AT, BE, DE, DK, NL, SE); • immigrants and descendants of immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa (in AT, DE, DK, FI, FR, IE, IT, LU, MT, PT, SE, UK); • immigrants and descendants of immigrants from Asia and South Asia (in CY , EL, IT, UK); • recent immigrants (in PL, SI); • Roma (in BG, CZ, EL, ES, HR, HU, PT, RO, SK); • Russian minorities (in EE, LT, LV). The survey sampled individuals aged 16 years and older: - who self-define as persons of ethnic minority background; this includes Roma and people from the Russian minority; - who self-declare as persons of immigrant background; this includes immigrants and descendants of immigrants; - whose usual place of residence is in the EU Member State surveyed; - who had been living in private households in the EU Member State surveyed for at least the last 12 months. The number of respondents ranged from 369 for immigrants and descendants of immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa in Italy to 1,408 Roma in Romania. The sample sizes were determined based on an optimal allocation with respect to the estimated total size of the covered target population in addition to practical considerations.
Sampling
Probability: Multistage; Sampling Procedure Comment: Most of the target groups in EU-MIDIS II can be considered as ‘hard-to-reach’ for survey research – in terms of being relatively small in size and/or dispersed – and due the absence of sampling frames of the target groups. Whenever possible, a sample was drawn from a sampling frame covering the target population. However, the opportunities to sample the target population differed greatly across Member States due to different availability of sampling frames and distribution of the target group in the countries (i.e. list of persons that can be used to make a controlled representative selection of the target group). Advanced and new sampling methodologies had to be developed and employed in most countries, and the best possible design was chosen for each target group in each of the countries. For some target groups in some countries, a combination of different methods was used to ensure better coverage of the target population. Detailed descriptions of sampling methods used are published in a dedicated Technical Report. National coverage in some countries had to be reduced for efficiency reasons. This means that in multistage sampling, areas with lower densities of the target population were excluded because screening of the target population would not have been possible. In most countries, areas with densities below a certain threshold had to be excluded. These thresholds vary from areas with fewer than 2.7 \% in Cyprus to the exceptional case of 30 \% in Estonia. These cut-off points, which were unavoidable due to the need for screening respondents in most countries, limited the overall coverage of the target population in the countries. The median coverage across countries and target groups was 60 \% of the target population.
Time Dimension
  • Cross-section
Collection Mode
  • Face-to-face interview: CAPI/CAMI
  • The main interview mode for EU-MIDIS II was Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) – that is, face-to-face interviews administered by interviewers using a computerised questionnaire.
Data and File Information
  • Number of Variables: 1283
Note
Sample characteristics: Respondents are, on average, 40 years of age (Russian minority respondents are on average 51 years old and recent immigrants 36 years old). Women constitute 51 \% of the entire sample, with differences across aggregate target groups and countries. In Malta and Greece, the share of female immigrants interviewed was very low – at 6 \% and 5 \%, respectively. The respondents’ socio-demographic profiles vary considerably across countries of residence and countries/regions of origin. Weighting: The survey results are based on weighted data to reflect the selection probabilities of each household and individual based on the sampling design. The weights also account for the differences in the (estimated) size of the target population in each of the countries. Where possible, the sample was post-stratified to the regional distribution and population characteristics of the covered target population. In Finland and the Netherlands, the sample was also adjusted to the gender and age distribution. The sample in the Netherlands was further adjusted according to generation (first- or second-generation), country of origin for immigrants and descendants of immigrants from North Africa, and age. For statistics, the samples were weighted by their estimated size, which means that country and group comparisons take the estimated total size of the target groups per country into account and do not (directly) reflect the sample sizes.
Availability
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Rights
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA6703 (Type: ZA-No.)
Publications
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2019), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey - Migrant women - selected findings (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2019/eumidis-ii-migrant-women
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2019), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey – Roma women in nine EU Member States (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2019/eumidis-ii-roma-women
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2018), A persisting concern: anti-Gypsyism as a barrier to Roma inclusion, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2018/roma-inclusion
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2018), Transition from education to employment of young Roma in nine EU Member States, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2018/roma-education-to-employment
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2018), Being Black in the EU, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2018/eumidis-ii-being-black
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2017), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey - Main results, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2017/eumidis-ii-main-results
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2017), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey - Technical report, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2017/eumidis-ii-technical-report
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2017), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey (EU-MIDIS II) Muslims – Selected findings, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2017/second-european-union-minorities-and-discrimination-survey-eu-midis-ii-muslims
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2017), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey - Main results, Country data. Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2017/eumidis-ii-main-results/country-data.
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2016), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey (EU-MIDIS II) Roma – Selected findings, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2016/eumidis-ii-roma-selected-findings
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights), Data Explorer, Survey on Minorities and Discrimination in EU (2016). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-and-maps/survey-data-explorer-second-eu-minorities-discrimination-survey
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2016), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey Questionnaire. Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/sites/default/files/fra\_uploads/fra-2017-eu-midis-ii-questionnaire\_en.pdf

Update Metadata: 2021-04-07 | Issue Number: 16 | Registration Date: 2020-07-29