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Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey (EU-MIDIS II), 2016

Version
1.0.0
Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
Creator
  • European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), Vienna, Austria
Publication Date
2020-07-29
Contributor
  • Ipsos MORI, United Kingdom (http://www.ipsos-mori.com/) (Data Collector)
  • Fair and Equal Societies, Research and Data Unit, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (Project Manager)
Language
German
Classification
  • ZA:
    • Social Policy
    • Society, Culture
  • CESSDA Topic Classification:
    • Society and culture
    • Crime
    • Equality and inequality
    • Minorities
Description
  • Abstract

    The second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey (EU-MIDIS II) was carried out by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) in 2016 as a follow-up of the first–ever major survey on minorities’ and immigrants’ experiences with discrimination and criminal victimisation, which the Agency conducted in 2008. The EU-MIDIS II survey collected information from 25,515 respondents with different ethnic minority and immigrant backgrounds, including Roma, across all EU Member States (in 2016, EU-28 including the United Kingdom). It provides valuable information on how the situation developed since the first EU-MIDIS survey in 2008 - covering additional areas such as citizenship, residence, participation, trust and tolerance. EU-wide comparable equality data, as collected through the EU-MIDIS surveys, can be used to monitor the situation on the ground and support institutions on the level of the EU and the Member States in identifying gaps in the protection of the fundamental rights of people with an immigrant or ethnic minority background. It also allows for populating core indicators for measuring progress in the implementation of the EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies as well as selected indicators on immigrant integration, for example, in the areas of ‘welcoming society’ and ‘active citizenship’. The EU-MIDIS II sample is representative for the selected population groups that were surveyed. The sample includes persons belonging to ethnic or national minorities, Roma and Russians, as well as persons born outside the EU (first generation respondents) and persons with at least one parent born outside the EU (second-generation respondents). All respondents were aged 16 years or older, and have lived in private households for at least 12 months before the survey. Person living in institutional settings – for example, in hospitals or prisons - were not surveyed. Countries/regions of origin of immigrants and descendants of immigrants include Turkey, North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia (in Cyprus, Asia); in Slovenia and Poland, individuals who immigrated to the EU in the past 10 years were included regardless of country of origin. Groups to be surveyed in each of the countries were selected based on multiple criteria, including the size of the target population, feasibility of carrying out a survey with the respective target population in terms of costs and accessibility, the risk of specific groups of experiencing ‘racially’, ‘ethnically’ or ‘religiously’ motivated discrimination and victimisation, their vulnerability for being at risk of social exclusion and lastly the comparability with previous FRA surveys. Target groups included in EU MIDIS II survey are immigrants and descendants of immigrants from North Africa; immigrants and descendants of immigrants from Turkey; immigrants and descendants of immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa; immigrants and descendants of immigrants from Asia and South Asia; recent immigrants; Roma; members of the Russian minority. The fieldwork was carried out between September 2015 and September 2016. The questionnaire contains questions on perceived discrimination in different settings, such as employment, education, housing, health and when using public or private services. It also covers police stops, criminal victimization (including hate crime) as well as awareness of rights and of institutions that offer victim support. In addition, respondents were asked about issues of societal participation and integration, including trust in public institutions and their level of attachment to the country of residence. Ipsos MORI, a large international survey company based in the United Kingdom, undertook the fieldwork for EU MIDIS II under the supervision of FRA staff, who monitored compliance with strict quality control procedures.
Temporal Coverage
  • 2015-09-24 / 2016-09-14
    Varies from country to country; overall duration
Geographic Coverage
  • Austria (AT)
  • Belgium (BE)
  • Bulgaria (BG)
  • Cyprus (CY)
  • Czech Republic (CZ)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Estonia (EE)
  • Greece (GR)
  • Spain (ES)
  • Finland (FI)
  • France (FR)
  • Croatia (HR)
  • Hungary (HU)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Lithuania (LT)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Latvia (LV)
  • Malta (MT)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Poland (PL)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Romania (RO)
  • Sweden (SE)
  • Slovenia (SI)
  • Slovakia (SK)
Sampled Universe
Immigrants, descendants of immigrants and recent immigrants included both citizens and non-citizens of the survey country irrespective of their formal residence status. For the purpose of the survey, the term ‘immigrants and descendants of immigrants’ encompasses the following: - ‘Immigrants’ include persons who were not born in an EU Member State or an European Economic Area (EEA)/European Free Trade Association (EFTA) country (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland), who had their usual place of residence in the territory of the EU Member State where the survey was conducted, and who had been living in the survey country for at least 12 months before the interview. - ‘Descendants of immigrants’ are persons who were born in one of the 28 EU Member States (in 2016 including United Kingdom) or an EEA/EFTA country, whose usual place of residence was in the territory of the EU Member State where the survey was conducted, and who had at least one parent not born in an EU or EEA/ EFTA country (Liechtenstein, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland). - In some EU Member States, EU-MIDIS II interviewed ‘recent immigrants’. These are persons who immigrated to an EU Member State in the 10 years before the survey (i.e. after 2004), whose usual place of residence was in the territory of the EU Member State where the survey was conducted, and who had been living in the survey country for at least 12 months before the interview. The country of birth of ‘recent immigrants’ can be any country outside the EU-28 or an EEA/EFTA country. Ethnic minorities, including Roma and the Russian minority, were included based on their self-identification. Immigrants and descendants of immigrants (often referred to as first- and second-generation respondents) were identified by asking potential respondents about their country of birth and their parents’ country of birth. EU-MIDIS II covered the following groups: • immigrants and descendants of immigrants from North Africa (in BE, ES, FR, IT, NL); • immigrants and descendants of immigrants from Turkey (in AT, BE, DE, DK, NL, SE); • immigrants and descendants of immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa (in AT, DE, DK, FI, FR, IE, IT, LU, MT, PT, SE, UK); • immigrants and descendants of immigrants from Asia and South Asia (in CY , EL, IT, UK); • recent immigrants (in PL, SI); • Roma (in BG, CZ, EL, ES, HR, HU, PT, RO, SK); • Russian minorities (in EE, LT, LV). The survey sampled individuals aged 16 years and older: - who self-define as persons of ethnic minority background; this includes Roma and people from the Russian minority; - who self-declare as persons of immigrant background; this includes immigrants and descendants of immigrants; - whose usual place of residence is in the EU Member State surveyed; - who had been living in private households in the EU Member State surveyed for at least the last 12 months. The number of respondents ranged from 369 for immigrants and descendants of immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa in Italy to 1,408 Roma in Romania. The sample sizes were determined based on an optimal allocation with respect to the estimated total size of the covered target population in addition to practical considerations.
Sampling
Most of the target groups in EU-MIDIS II can be considered as ‘hard-to-reach’ for survey research – in terms of being relatively small in size and/or dispersed – and due the absence of sampling frames of the target groups. Whenever possible, a sample was drawn from a sampling frame covering the target population. However, the opportunities to sample the target population differed greatly across Member States due to different availability of sampling frames and distribution of the target group in the countries (i.e. list of persons that can be used to make a controlled representative selection of the target group). Advanced and new sampling methodologies had to be developed and employed in most countries, and the best possible design was chosen for each target group in each of the countries. For some target groups in some countries, a combination of different methods was used to ensure better coverage of the target population. Detailed descriptions of sampling methods used are published in a dedicated Technical Report. National coverage in some countries had to be reduced for efficiency reasons. This means that in multistage sampling, areas with lower densities of the target population were excluded because screening of the target population would not have been possible. In most countries, areas with densities below a certain threshold had to be excluded. These thresholds vary from areas with fewer than 2.7 \% in Cyprus to the exceptional case of 30 \% in Estonia. These cut-off points, which were unavoidable due to the need for screening respondents in most countries, limited the overall coverage of the target population in the countries. The median coverage across countries and target groups was 60 \% of the target population.
Collection Mode
  • The main interview mode for EU-MIDIS II was Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) – that is, face-to-face interviews administered by interviewers using a computerised questionnaire.
Data and File Information
  • Number of Variables: 1283
Note
Sample characteristics: Respondents are, on average, 40 years of age (Russian minority respondents are on average 51 years old and recent immigrants 36 years old). Women constitute 51 \% of the entire sample, with differences across aggregate target groups and countries. In Malta and Greece, the share of female immigrants interviewed was very low – at 6 \% and 5 \%, respectively. The respondents’ socio-demographic profiles vary considerably across countries of residence and countries/regions of origin. Weighting: The survey results are based on weighted data to reflect the selection probabilities of each household and individual based on the sampling design. The weights also account for the differences in the (estimated) size of the target population in each of the countries. Where possible, the sample was post-stratified to the regional distribution and population characteristics of the covered target population. In Finland and the Netherlands, the sample was also adjusted to the gender and age distribution. The sample in the Netherlands was further adjusted according to generation (first- or second-generation), country of origin for immigrants and descendants of immigrants from North Africa, and age. For statistics, the samples were weighted by their estimated size, which means that country and group comparisons take the estimated total size of the target groups per country into account and do not (directly) reflect the sample sizes.
Availability
Download
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
Rights
All metadata from GESIS DBK are available free of restriction under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. However, GESIS requests that you actively acknowledge and give attribution to all metadata sources, such as the data providers and any data aggregators, including GESIS. For further information see https://dbk.gesis.org/dbksearch/guidelines.asp
Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA6703 (Type: ZA-No.)
Publications
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2019), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey - Migrant women - selected findings (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2019/eumidis-ii-migrant-women
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2019), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey – Roma women in nine EU Member States (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2019/eumidis-ii-roma-women
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2018), A persisting concern: anti-Gypsyism as a barrier to Roma inclusion, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2018/roma-inclusion
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2018), Transition from education to employment of young Roma in nine EU Member States, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2018/roma-education-to-employment
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2018), Being Black in the EU, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2018/eumidis-ii-being-black
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2017), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey - Main results, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2017/eumidis-ii-main-results
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2017), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey - Technical report, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2017/eumidis-ii-technical-report
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2017), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey (EU-MIDIS II) Muslims – Selected findings, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2017/second-european-union-minorities-and-discrimination-survey-eu-midis-ii-muslims
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2017), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey - Main results, Country data. Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2017/eumidis-ii-main-results/country-data.
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2016), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey (EU-MIDIS II) Roma – Selected findings, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union (Publications Office). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2016/eumidis-ii-roma-selected-findings
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights), Data Explorer, Survey on Minorities and Discrimination in EU (2016). Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-and-maps/survey-data-explorer-second-eu-minorities-discrimination-survey
  • FRA (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights) (2016), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey Questionnaire. Available at: https://fra.europa.eu/sites/default/files/fra\_uploads/fra-2017-eu-midis-ii-questionnaire\_en.pdf

Update Metadata: 2020-07-29 | Issue Number: 1 | Registration Date: 2020-07-29

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), Vienna, Austria (2020): Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey (EU-MIDIS II), 2016. Version: 1.0.0. GESIS Datenarchiv. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.4232/1.13514