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Moving to Collective Efficacy: How Inner-City Mobility Impacts Minority and Immigrant Youth Victimization and Violence, Chicago, Illinois, 1994-2002

Version
v0
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • Antunes, Maria João Lobo
  • Ahlin, Eileen
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
2020-07-30
Publication Place
Ann Arbor, Michigan
Publisher
  • Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice
Language
English
Free Keywords
Schema: ICPSR
immigrants; juveniles; minorities; neighborhoods; victimization; violence
Description
  • Abstract

    Despite much recent attention devoted to understanding the ramifications of residential mobility, especially negative consequences for youth, there is scant research exploring how inner-city mobility impacts youth violence and victimization among minorities and immigrants. Leaving the city imparts benefits: decreasing deviance and improving youth outcomes. Considering that many are unable to "escape" the city, clarifying what effects, if any, inner-city mobility has is critical. Destination neighborhoods for youth who move in the city are either contextually the same, better, or worse than their original neighborhood. Evidence suggests that immigrant families are more likely to move as are racial minorities. Because of this, the researchers examined the extent to which moving within a city affects minority and immigrant youth experiences, particularly in relation to changes in neighborhood collective efficacy; a major characteristic shaping community crime rates and youth violence. This project involved four main goals: identify key characteristics of the destination neighborhoods and those who are moving within the city of Chicago;; understand how inner-city mobility of minority and immigrant youth affects engagement in violence and victimization;; determine whether vertical or horizontal mobility with respect to key neighborhood factors differentially influences minority and immigrant youth outcomes;; assess who fares better - youth who vertically move (to better or worse neighborhoods), those who do not move, or those who horizontally move (to equivalent neighborhoods).; This research used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Data were drawn from both the Longitudinal Cohort Study (N=1,611) and Community Survey (N=97). The rich data from the Community Survey affords the opportunity to examine how community characteristics like collective efficacy, disorder, and indicators of social disorganization can impact a variety of youth behaviors among at-risk youth over time between Wave 1 and Wave 2 and Wave 2 and Wave 3. The Longitudinal Cohort Study provides data on youth characteristics and experiences with violence, and ecological information on family and peer relationships. The investigators focused primarily on three of the seven youth cohorts from the Longitudinal Cohort Study: 9, 12, and 15. The ages of these youth during the study period place them at increased risk for exposure to community violence, and place them in range for aging into, peaking, or aging out of crime and delinquency. The Longitudinal Cohort Study respondents are nested in neighborhood clusters and multilevel models are employed to assess the outcomes victimization and violence within neighborhood context. The researchers employed a series of hierarchical generalized linear models using HLM 7 in addition to running several analyses of variance (ANOVA) permitting examinations between groups of interest.
  • Abstract

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), the researchers examined the extent to which moving within a city affects minority and immigrant youth experiences, particularly in relation to changes in neighborhood collective efficacy, a major characteristic shaping community crime rates and youth violence. This project involved four main goals: identify key characteristics of the destination neighborhoods and those who are moving within the city of Chicago;; understand how inner-city mobility of minority and immigrant youth affects engagement in violence and victimization;; determine whether vertical or horizontal mobility with respect to key neighborhood factors differentially influences minority and immigrant youth outcomes;; assess who fares better - youth who vertically move (to better or worse neighborhoods), those who do not move, or those who horizontally move (to equivalent neighborhoods).;
  • Methods

    This study is a secondary analysis of the Community Survey (1994-1995) and the Longitudinal Cohort Study (1994, 1997, 2000). The Community Survey had a cross-sectional survey design, interviewing a representative sample of 8,872 adult residents of Chicago. The Longitudinal Cohort Study had a longitudinal, multi-cohort survey design, conducting in-home interviews with 6,228 caregivers and youth over three waves. To analyze the existing data, the researchers used hierarchial generalized linear models and several ANOVA tests to assess victimization and violence outcomes and examine between groups of interest (racial groups, immigration status, gender, movers vs. non-movers, age cohorts, etc.).
  • Methods

    Variables derived from the Community Survey consist of neighborhood characteristics, such as neighborhood cluster, collective efficacy, disorder, poverty, residential instability, and immigrant concentration. Specifically, variables measure the amount of change in each factor as participants moved to different neighborhoods during the study period. Variables derived from the Longitudinal Cohort Study are specific to youth and caregivers. For youth, variables include demographics (race, Hispanic origin, gender, immigrant status, cohort), inner-city mobility, violence perpetration, exposure to violence in the community and/or at school, peer support and relations (including deviant behavior by peers), and direct victimization. Caregivers were asked about family management behaviors (i.e. addressing behavior issues with their child, supervision and monitoring, if they know their child's friends) and items assessing their child's level of self-control.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Presence of Common Scales: Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus, 1979)
  • Methods

    Response Rates: Not applicable.
  • Abstract

    Datasets:

    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1994--2002
  • 1994 / 2002
  • Collection date: 1994--2002
  • 1994 / 2002
Geographic Coverage
  • Chicago
  • Illinois
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Youth and their primary caregivers living in Chicago neighborhoods during the study period. For the current analysis, the longitudinal sample was limited to youth who were 9, 12, or 15 years old in the study's first wave (1994). Smallest Geographic Unit: Neighborhood cluster
Sampling
Community Survey data: The original study used a multi-stage cluster sampling method. 343 neighborhood clusters were created based on census tracts and neighborhood boundaries. 25 residents from each neighborhood cluster were interviewed. Longitudinal Cohort Study data: The original study used stratified probability sampling methods. Participants were selected from 80 neighborhood clusters out of 343, which were stratified based on race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Youth participants were grouped into cohorts based on age at the time of Wave 1, (n = 1,611). As cohorts 9 and 12 had the most complete data on mobility, demographics, and youth outcomes, the analysis sample consisted of these individuals (n = 1069).
Collection Mode
  • face-to-face interview
  • on-site questionnaire
Note
Funding institution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (2016-R2-CX-0044).
Availability
Delivery
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 37368 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR37368.v1

Update Metadata: 2020-07-30 | Issue Number: 2 | Registration Date: 2020-07-30

Antunes, Maria João Lobo; Ahlin, Eileen (2020): Moving to Collective Efficacy: How Inner-City Mobility Impacts Minority and Immigrant Youth Victimization and Violence, Chicago, Illinois, 1994-2002. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR37368