Small Family Firms in Eurasia

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • Hann, Chris (Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, Halle (Saale))
Other Title
  • Realising Eurasia: Civilisation and Moral Economy in the 21st Century (Alternative Title)
Publication Date
  • Researchers of the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology (Data Collector)
  • ZA:
    • Political Attitudes and Behavior
    • Work and Industry
    • Society, Culture
    • Family
    • Religion and "Weltanschauung"
  • CESSDA Topic Classification:
    • Labour and employment
    • Religion and values
    • Social behaviour and attitudes
    • Family life and marriage
    • Gender and gender roles
    • Equality and inequality
    • Income, property and investment/saving
  • Abstract

    The data was collected for the ERC project ´Realising Eurasia: Civilisation and Moral Economy in the 21st Century´. The project examined small family businesses in medium-sized cities in eight countries of the Eurasian landmass (China, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, India, Myanmar, Russia, Turkey). While the project focused on detailed ethnographic research, the survey data complemented the qualitative data. The survey data were collected in 2016 by the project´s researchers (one researcher in one city per country). The companies were selected by each researcher according to a targeted sampling procedure. The company owners (or those chosen by the owner) completed the questionnaire either alone or together with the researcher. The content of the questionnaire consists of questions on family, work and business, politics and economy, and household. Topics: 1. Family, morality and values in life: importance of family, friends, leisure time, politics, work and religion in life; something else which is very important (open); feeling of freedom of choice and control over the way life turns out; further comments by respondent; important and desirable qualities for a son, for a daughter and for an employee (independence, hard work, feeling of responsibility, imagination, tolerance and respect for other people, thrift, saving money and things, determination, perseverance, religious faith, unselfishness, obedience, good manners, self-control, environmental awareness, ambition, max 5); number of items marked (max 5); qualities the respondent would most want for his daughter and for his son (e.g. to get good job qualifications, well paid job, children and a good family life, etc.); number of items marked (max 5); justification of selected actions (claiming government benefits to which someone is not entitled, avoiding a fare on public transport, stealing, cheating on taxes, someone accepting a bribe in the course of their duties, lying in your own interest, paying cash for services to avoid paying tax, buying something you know was stolen); most important and second most important reason why there are people in the country who live in need (unlucky, laziness and lack of willpower, injustice in the country, an inevitable part of modern progress, lack of religious faith, no moral virtues); attitude towards work (to fully develop your talents, you need to have a job, it is humiliating to receive money without having to work for it, people who don’t work turn lazy, work is a duty towards society, work should always come first, even if it means less spare time); agreement with the following statements (when jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women, and employers should give priority to people of the country over immigrants; if a women earns more money than her husband, it’s almost certain to cause problems, having a job is the best way for a woman to be an independent person); gender roles (one of the main goals in life has been to make my parents proud, when a mother works to pay, the children suffer, men do better in business than women do, being a housewife is just as fulfilling as working for pay, both partners in a relationship should contribute to a household’s income); activities the respondent would do with 40% more time (e.g. run own business in the spare time, use the spare time to study, spend the time with family and friends, spend the time on hobbies, do something for local community, etc.). 2. Politics and economy: views on various issues (income inequality, ownership of business, responsibility, competition, hard work, wealth, unemployed people, state control); justification of higher payment for one of two employees doing the same job; reasons for justification of higher payment (more work experience, if person has worked longer in this firm, higher level of formal qualifications, older, man, married, dependents (e.g. children, parents to take care of), comes from this country); number of items marked; most important and second most important aims for the development of the country over the next ten years (maintaining order in the nation, giving people more say in important government decisions, a high level of economic growth, reducing inequality in the country, improving the country’s global position, named other goals, marked more than one); further comments by respondent/ researcher; people would try to take advantage of you vs. people would try to be fair; confidence in institutions (churches/ religious organisations, Armed Forces, media, education system, trade unions, police, legal system, government, political parties, major companies, public service, banks); social acceptance of various groups of people (drug addicts, people of different ethnic group/ colour, people who have aids, immigrants, homosexuals, people of different religion, heavy drinkers, single parents, people who speak a different language) as neighbours and as colleagues; further comments by respondent/ researcher; active or inactive membership in voluntary organisations (e.g. religious or church organization, trade union, political parties, etc.); interest in politics; frequency of voting at elections on the local level and on the national level; party preference at a national election. 3. Religion: current or previous belonging to a religion or religious denomination; religious denomination; frequency of attendance of religious services; frequency of prayer/ religious meditation; further comments by respondent; believe in: God(s), some sorts of spirit or life force, life after death, miracles, a soul, the devil, hell, heaven, sin, reincarnation, destiny/ fate, karma, and bad omens; religiosity; have my own way of connecting with the Divine/ the Sacred apart from or in addition to churches or religious services; self-assessment as a spiritual person. 4. Business and work: employment status; if self-employed: information about this business (single owner or business partner(s), shareholders, year of becoming the (co-)owner of this firm) year of start working in this firm, firm existed before the respondent became the owner/ started to work here; year of establishment; previous owner(s); employed (un)paid family-member: respondent has ever been the owner of this company from – until (year); owner of this firm today; additional remarks about firm history etc.(self-employed, owners and employed (un)paid family-members); other family members working in the firm; kind of work contract; person who provided the initial capital or investment to start the business; person who provided extra capital or investment to continue the business; plans for the size of the business in the next five years; kind of looking for an employee (e.g. ask friends for recommendations, ask other business-owners/or a business association for recommendations, etc.); current occupational position in the firm; number of people working in the firm; branch (according to Eurostat NACE); period of unemployment; duration of unemployment (in months); previous occupation and occupational position; freedom to make decisions in the job; further comments by respondent; number of supervised people; proud in the work; obstacles for the current operations of the firm (e.g. access to finance, access to land, customs and trade regulations, etc.); experience with bribery; establishment has a line of credit or a loan; lender (open); establishment did apply for any loans or lines of credit previously; main reason for not applying for a line of credit. Demography: sex, age; highest educational level; household composition (sex, age and relationship to the respondent of all household members); marital status; household information: kinds of household income; income-group of household; satisfaction with the financial situation of the household; change of the financial situation of the household in the next 12 months; household situation (own land, own a flat/house outright (no mortgage), paying a mortgage on a flat/house, own/pay a mortgage on an additional flat/house, live in a flat/house given by another relative, rent a flat/house, rent a room in a shard flat/house); during the past year the household did save money, did just get by, did spend some savings, did borrow money/take out a loan, did make payments on loans and interest on loans; creditors of these loan payments; percentage of household income for loans; burden on the household by repaying these loans; amount of money the household can usually put aside for savings; respondent has given money or financial support to relatives or other people outside the household; respondent’s relationship of this person(s); self-assessment of social class; most recent job of father and mother; respondent and his parents were born in the country; country of birth of respondent and his parents (migration background). Additionally coded: ID; questionnaire ID; country of survey; city of survey.
Temporal Coverage
  • 2016-01-01 / 2016-12-31
Geographic Coverage
  • China (CN)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Hungary (HU)
  • India (IN)
  • Myanmar (MM)
  • Russian Federation (RU)
  • Turkey (TR)
Sampled Universe
Small family firms in the respective city of each country. 'Family firm' means owner managed firm. 'Small' according to the interpretation of each researcher guided by country-specific perceptions.
Non-probability: Purposive; Sampling Procedure Comment: The firms were selected according to a purposive sampling by each researcher. The sample is not representative in a statistical sense (no probability sampling was applied).
Time Dimension
  • Cross-section
Collection Mode
  • Self-administered questionnaire: Paper
  • The firms were selected according to a purposive sampling by each researcher. Firm owners (or those who were designated by the owner) filled out the questionnaire either on their own or together with the researcher.
Data and File Information
  • Number of Variables: 472
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA6702 (Type: ZA-No.)

Update Metadata: 2020-10-21 | Issue Number: 16 | Registration Date: 2020-08-06