Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (12th-Grade Survey), 2019

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Miech, Richard A.
  • Johnston, Lloyd D.
  • Bachman, Jerald G.
  • O'Malley, Patrick M.
  • Schulenberg, John E.
  • Patrick, Megan E.
Other Title
  • MTF 2019 (12th Grade) (Alternative Title)
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Monitoring the Future (MTF) Public-Use Cross-Sectional Datasets
Publication Date
Publication Place
Ann Arbor, Michigan
  • Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse
Free Keywords
Schema: ICPSR
alcohol; attitudes; delinquent behavior; demographic characteristics; drug education; drug use; educational objectives; family relationships; gender roles; high school students; lifestyles; peer influence; prescription drugs; self esteem; substance abuse; technology; tobacco use; vaping; victimization
  • Abstract

    These surveys of 12th-grade students are part of a series that explores changes in important values, behaviors, and lifestyle orientations of contemporary American youth. Students are randomly assigned to complete one of six questionnaires, each with a different subset of topical questions, but all containing a set of "core" questions on demographics and drug use. There are about 1,400 variables across the questionnaires. Drugs covered by this survey include tobacco, smokeless tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, hashish, prescription medications, over-the-counter medications, LSD, hallucinogens, amphetamines (stimulants), Ritalin (methylphenidate), sedatives/barbiturates, tranquilizers, cocaine, crack cocaine, GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate), ecstasy, methamphetamine, and heroin. Other topics include attitudes toward religion, changing roles for women, educational aspirations, self-esteem, exposure to drug education, and violence and crime (both in and out of school). Two supplemental data files (DS8 and DS9) have been included this year by the Principal Investigators. These files each include three administrative variables for year (V1), form (V3), and ID (RESPONDENT_ID) along with a few additional variables of survey questions not previously released for Form 5 (DS8) and Form 6 (DS9) between the years 2016 to 2018. These same variables are already present in the main 2019 data files for Form 5 (DS6) and Form 6 (DS7). The front section of the codebook provides details about each of the variables. There are also instructions on how to merge the supplemental data on to the main data files for the previous three years: 2018 data (ICPSR 37416); 2017 data (ICPSR 37182); 2016 data (ICPSR 36798);
  • Methods

    A total of 13,713 12th grade students completed a survey in 2019. The number of students completing each form were: Core Data: 13,713; Form 1 Data: 2,284; Form 2 Data: 2,299; Form 3 Data: 2,266; Form 4 Data: 2,313; Form 5 Data: 2,274; Form 6 Data: 2,277; Beginning in 2019 half of the schools were randomly selected where students completed the survey via electronic tablet instead of the traditional paper-and-pencil version. Differences in responses by survey mode were negligible. Two new variables TABLET and RANDOMDRAW are included in the datasets. The variable TABLET recorded which format (paper or tablet) was administered to the student.The variable RANDOMDRAW gives information on where tablet-only questions were asked within the survey. Some students who utilized the tablet to complete the survey were asked additional questions not asked of others who also used the tablet. These variables contain unique missing value codes to account for cases where the questions were not administered to the student. The codebook provides additional details about the tablet survey module. This additional section of variables was included in 4 of the 6 questionnaire forms and then also included in the core data file. These variables can be found in the following datasets: DS1: Core Data; DS2: Form 1 Data; DS3: Form 2 Data; DS5: Form 4 Data; DS7: Form 6 Data;
  • Methods

    There are about 1,400 variables across the questionnaires. On average, each form consisted of 348 questions. Some questions were repeated on multiple forms and some were asked on all six forms. All of the survey questions are categorical in nature. The majority of questions fall into one of seven types of response options. Yes / No; Marked / Not Marked; Agree / Disagree scale (5 point); Disapproval scale (3 point); Risk scale (4 point); Frequency of days (6 ponit); Frequency of use (7 point); The Core Data file is a compilation of variables from the six questionnaire forms. Variables contained in the Core data file may not appear in all six forms. ICPSR created the final 30 variables of the Core data file to aid in analysis and utility.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Created online analysis version with question text.; Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The overall student response rate for 2019 was 80 percent.
  • Abstract


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Core Data
    • DS2: Form 1 Data
    • DS3: Form 2 Data
    • DS4: Form 3 Data
    • DS5: Form 4 Data
    • DS6: Form 5 Data
    • DS7: Form 6 Data
    • DS8: Supplemental Form 5 Data, 2016-2018
    • DS9: Supplemental Form 6 Data, 2017-2018
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 2019
  • Collection date: 2019
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
High school seniors in the contiguous United States. Smallest Geographic Unit: Census Region
A multistage area probability sample design was used involving three selection stages: (1) geographic areas or primary sampling units (PSUs), (2) schools (or linked groups of schools) within PSUs, and (3) students within sampled schools. Of the 72 PSUs, 8 were selected with certainty, 10 were selected with a probability of .50, and the remainder were selected using a probability based on their 2010 Census household count. Generally speaking, in schools with more than 350 seniors, a sample of seniors or classes was drawn. In schools with less than 350 seniors, all seniors were asked to participate unless logistical challenges required a sample be taken. Each school was asked to participate for two years so that each year one-half of the sample would be replaced. Schools refusing participation were replaced with similar schools in terms of geographic location, size, and type of school (e.g., public, private/Catholic, private/non-Catholic). The participation rate among schools has been between 66 and 85 percent since the inception of the study. The total sample of 12th graders was divided randomly into 6 subsamples, each to be administered a different form of the questionnaire. "Core" drug and demographic questions were included in all questionnaire forms.
Collection Mode
  • on-site questionnaire
Funding institution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse (DA001411).
This study is freely available to the general public via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 37841 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)

Update Metadata: 2020-10-29 | Issue Number: 1 | Registration Date: 2020-10-29