The Impact of Exclusion in School: A Comprehensive Study in New York City, 2010-2015

Resource Type
Dataset : administrative records data, census/enumeration data, survey data
  • Hassoun Ayoub, Lama
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Publication Place
Ann Arbor, Michigan
  • Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice
Free Keywords
Schema: ICPSR
criminal justice system; restorative justice; school age children; schools
  • Abstract

    This study uses quantitative and qualitative research to fill a gap in the scholarly literature on "what works" in school discipline, climate, and safety and has important implications for educators and justice policymakers nationwide. The quantitative analysis utilized data from 2010-2015 of middle and high school students (N=87,471 students nested within 804 schools and 74 neighborhoods) in New York City. Researchers applied hierarchical modeling methods to analyze effects of neighborhood, school, and student characteristics on: 1) future school disciplinary outcomes; 2) future arrest; and 3) grade advancement. Demographic variables for individual participants include race, gender, and if they are an English language learner. Demographic variables for neighborhoods include race, median income, crime rates, and education levels.
  • Abstract

    This comprehensive study of 804 New York City public middle and high schools sought to isolate the independent impacts of suspension, as well as to disentangle the effects, if any, of student, school, and neighborhood characteristics. Conversely, the study also explored the relationship of restorative justice and other positive practices to student behavior and school culture.
  • Methods

    The quantitative study uses data from multiple sources at the individual, school, and neighborhood levels. Data was requested from the New York City Department of Education (DOE) on all students grades six through twelve during the 2010-2015 school years. Data was also requested from the New York State Office of Court Administration (OCA) on all individuals under the age of 21 arrested in New York City during the same time period. OCA provided information from both its adult criminal court data and juvenile and family court data to ensure all relevant ages were included. For neighborhood data, we utilized publicly available sources. First, researchers used U.S. Census data from the American Community Survey 2010-2015 estimates to obtain information on neighborhood demographics and economic indicators for each Neighborhood Tabulation Area (NTA). Second, researchers calculated crime rates based on NYPD arrest data and then assigned a neighborhood crime rate to each school.
  • Methods

    Student data variables were created using Department of Education data, including demographic information, attendance, prior academic advancement, prior disciplinary incidents, severity level (medium and high) of the initial incident, and initial suspension. School data variables included a demographic profile for each school, student-teacher ratio, and incident and suspension rates. Neighborhood data variables included a neighborhood disadvantage index, calculated based on the neighborhood's median family income, percent of female-headed households, percent below poverty, percent using food stamps/SNAP, percent with less than a high school diploma, percent black, percent Hispanic, percent unemployed, and the ratio of poverty to income. Principal data variables included questions about the number of health and public safety professionals present at the schools, student and parent engagement, guidance interventions, and general school climate.
  • Abstract


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Neighborhood Data
    • DS2: Principal Survey Data
    • DS3: School Data
    • DS4: Student Data
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 2010--2015
  • 2010 / 2015
  • Collection date: 2010--2015
  • 2010 / 2015
Geographic Coverage
  • New York (state)
  • New York City
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Smallest Geographic Unit: None
The sample includes 87,471 middle and high school (grades 6-12) students attending NYC public schools, who had one or more disciplinary incident during the 2011-2012 or 2012- 2013 school years. For each student, an initial incident was selected from either 2011-2012 or 2012- 2013. For students who only had one incident, that single incident was chosen as the reference point; for students with more than one incident in the sample years, the initial incident was chosen randomly. Students who did not have an incident in those two sample years were excluded from the analysis.
Collection Mode
  • web-based survey
Funding institution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (2014-CK-BX-0001).
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 37249 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR37249.v1

Update Metadata: 2020-12-16 | Issue Number: 2 | Registration Date: 2020-12-16