Data and Code for: "Gendered Laws and Women in the Workforce"

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Goldberg, Pinelopi K. (Yale University)
  • Djankov, Simeon (World Bank)
  • Hyland, Marie (World Bank)
Publication Date
Free Keywords
Gender discrimination in laws
  • Abstract

    This paper offers for the first time a global picture of gender discrimination by the law as it affects women’s economic opportunity and charts the evolution of legal inequalities over five decades. Using the World Bank’s newly constructed “Women, Business and the Law” database, we document large and persistent gender inequalities, especially with regard to pay and treatment of parenthood. We find positive correlations between more equal laws pertaining to women in the workforce and more equal labor market outcomes, such as higher female labor force participation and a smaller wage gap between men and women.
  • Weighting

    No weights were used
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The response rate among the contacted legal experts is between 80 and 85 percent each year.
  • Methods

    Presence of Common Scales: Verbal answers to questions are converted to indicators recorded on a 0-1 scale
Temporal Coverage
  • 1970-01-01 / 2019-12-31
    Time Period: Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1970--Tue Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 2019
  • 2009-05-01 / 2019-09-30
    Collection Date(s): Fri May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2009--Mon Sep 30 00:00:00 EDT 2019
Geographic Coverage
  • 190 countries
Sampled Universe
Women across the world. Smallest Geographic Unit: Country
Each year the World Bank contacts international law associations and asks them to recommend top lawyers who practice family law, inheritance law, labor law, and property law in each of the 190 countries surveyed.  Subsequently, the World Bank mails questionnaires to the recommended lawyers. A total of 2,100 lawyers from private law firms and non-governmental organizations in 190 different countries provided answers to mailed questionnaires.
Collection Mode
  • mail questionnaire;


This study is freely available to the general public via web download.
  • Is version of
    DOI: 10.3886/E118224
  • Hyland, Marie, Simeon Djankov, and Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg. “Gendered Laws and Women in the Workforce.” American Economic Review: Insights 2, no. 4 (December 2020): 475–90.
    • ID: 10.1257/aeri.20190542 (DOI)

Update Metadata: 2020-12-29 | Issue Number: 1 | Registration Date: 2020-12-29