Basic data on the German transportation system‘s development: Stock of transport vehicles, services and capacities, accidents by mode of transport, expenses and investments as well as selected indices in an EU-wide comparison, 1950 - 2000
- Franzmann, G.
- Historical Studies Data
AbstractThe development of the regional economy, of trade and therefore of prosperity is closely related to the available transport infrastructure. The transport sector ensures the mobility of people as well as the efficient exchange of goods and news so that the importance of geographical distances took more and more a backseat. In this process all sectors of traffic and information are of importance. This data compilation contains information about different aspects of traffic by the composition of selected time series from the Traffic Statistics of the Federal Republic of Germany. The compilation consists of a total of 1034 Time Series, which largely extend the period of the former FRG and of Germany in the borders of the 3rd October 1990 (reunification: Old German federal Länder and the new German Länder). Concerning the stock of motorcars and of railway wagons data could be gathered for the period of the German Empire between 1870 and 1907. Caused by different classifications of the sources used for the data compilation the comparability of the time series may be limited in rare cases. In these cases, it is pointed out in the cell- and column-specific annotations. The focus of the compilation is the functional aspect of traffic. Vehicle stocks, traffic routes and transport services of the transport modes are represented - with the exception of aviation. There are also data tables with information about Germany’s transport budget, the federal traffic expenditures, the investments in the transport system, and to the federal assets of transport facilities. Stocks and registrations of motor vehicles are differentiated by type of vehicle, engine size class, and mode of driving. New car registrations are additionally listed by occupation of the holder. Concerning to the railways companies, the stock of railway wagons, rail cars and railway engines, the number of railway stations, the railroad accesses to industrial companies and level crossings are gathered. For the inland navigation information about the number of ships by ship type, load capacity and average age of the ships is collected. Information on transport and transport services by mode of transport for passenger and for freight transport are represented by transport services. Individual modes of transport are represented in separate tables again in detail and with further differentiation. The transport volumes and transport performance of the freight transport for road and inland waterway is further broken down by product groups. Traffic accidents are shown by mode of transport and the type of road use, whereas accidents of aviation, railways, and road traffic are represented in detail in separate tables, again. Caused by the comfortable data situation data on railroad traffic accidents are a clear focus of this chapter. The data compilation is completed with selected indicators in the EU comparison. The statistical topics in detail Stocks of road and rail transport The transport network and vehicle stocks are an important basis for the mobility of an economy. In particular, the motor vehicle traffic allows high individual mobility. The road-, railway-, and waterway network, railroad accesses and railway stations as part of the transport system have been included in the data collection (Airfields, facilities for combined transport, transport telematics and the pipe network are areas that have not been considered in this study). The Railway In Germany state-owned rail companies and private rail companies are active. Especially in the important commercial and industrial cities private stock companies were founded in the early years of Germany’s railway history with the aim to finance the creation of railway lines. In this compilation the railway inventory of length of railways, stock of wagons, railcars and rail engines are reported for both together, private and state-owned railway companies. Time series to the length of the rail lines, stations, sidings, level crossings and the vehicle inventories, which breaks down in locomotives, railcars, passenger cars, baggage wagons and freight wagons, have been compiled for this compilation. Information for all railway companies together at the time of the German Empire and the German railways at the time of the Federal Republic (the state-owned “Deutsche Bundesbahn” and the “non-state-owned railways”, i.e. private railways) are taken from the publications of the Federal Statistical Office: Bevölkerung und Wirtschaft 1872-1972, Kohlhammer Verlag: Stuttgart und Mainz, 1972. as well as the Yearbooks of the Federal Republik of Germany (Statistische Jahrbücher für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland). The length of the rail lines are reported at the end of the respectively reported year and as property lines. The stock of railcar, rail engine, and wagon is as of the end of the year of operation. Until 1937 the property holdings of the railway companies are recorded. Then, the values refer to the operation inventory, that means, in the reported values borrowed stocks of other railway companies can be included. The train has undergone fundamental technical changes. In the old federal states, the activity area of the German Federal Railways, all steam locomotives were replaced by diesel and electric locomotives successively until 1977. The rail route types were unified (complete dismantling of railway lines for narrow gauge railways). New wagon types and types of trains (InterCity, Trans Euro Express) were introduced. All of this cannot be traced in detail and in form of statistical series in the present study, because this would go beyond the time frame of the project. With the aim to get data series as constant as possible, newly added railcar types or further differentiated wagon types that were listed separately in the statistics, so far as it was possible, were grouped into generic terms. Thus, from 1990 in the Statistical Yearbook for the Federal Republic of Germany the categories ‘Electric locomotives’, ‘diesel locomotives’, ‘Electric Railcar’ and ‘diesel multiple units’ are listed separately. These categories are outlined in one series presented under the generic term, railcars´. Automobiles In the early years of the automobile it had little meaning for the transport of goods. In the densely populated urban areas of Germany, which were well served by the railway and the tram, the first automobiles played a minor role to the economy and the transport of goods. In addition, high investment costs for the development of roads were needed, while the railways lines were already available in the German cities. It was only in the 1920s, when the automobile in metropolitan areas was able to assert itself as a transport vehicle, while the passenger car was at that time still an expensive luxury item available only for a few wealthy people yet. Today, the car is a necessary form of transport, enables people to participate in society - for example, the daily journey to work or the flexible and rapid transport of goods. Today, Germany has one of the longest road networks. For this compilation at hand time series data of automobiles were collected for a total inventory of motor vehicles and motor vehicles broken down by types. Sources of the data are the various editions of the Statistical Yearbook for the Federal Republic of Germany. Furthermore, new registrations are reported by occupation of the owner, engine size and mode of drive. The publication ‘Tatsachen und Zahlen’ (facts and numbers), published by the Association of the Automobile Industry, was the source of the data collection of motor vehicles registration. Transport and Transport services In addition to the vehicle stock, the performance in the fields of passenger transport and freight transport is a major business and traffic factor. Firstly, the traffic performance can be expressed in absolute values, that is, the number of persons and the weight of goods transported. Statistically, the traffic performance is expressed using an index which has the dimension “PKM” (passenger kilometre) (= number of persons multiplied by kilometres, they were transported) for passenger transport and “TKM” (tone-kilometre) (number of tones multiplied by kilometres they were transported) for transport of goods. The product of the distance traveled and the quantity of transported goods or persons is the expense in transportation. These four variables are presented for the rail, road, and inland waterway transport. Expenditures and Investments Modern transport infrastructure is the basic condition for the competitiveness of a national economy. Investments preserves and develops the transport infrastructure. Therefore, for the Federal Republic of Germany time series data on of expenses for and investments in the infrastructure of the various modes of transport are compiled. In this case expenditures actually paid in the past budget year are listed. The expenditures on traffic are made for transport investments, traffic police and traffic management and they are covered by the federal government, the federal states and the municipalities, as well as from ERP Special Fund (=ERP-Sondervermögen; ERP stands for European Recovery Program) and the Compensation Fund (Lastenausgleichsfond). Gross fixed asset investment and permanent assets are monetary values describing the technical supply potential. The asset investments involves both investments for expansion and for rationalization as well as replacement and maintenance investments. According to the definition of national accounts, purchases of new and used equipment (net of sales) as well as the self-constructed installations are included in gross fixed capital formation. Equipment and installations are defined as durable goods, buildings, and vehicles, which are used for maintenance, expansion and improvement of the production facilities. Additionally, the number of employed persons in each of the transport modes is reported in terms of expenditure on transport infrastructure. Gross fixed capital formation and the number of employed persons give an idea about the cost intensity of the individual traffic areas. The gross permanent assets specifies the replacement value of the transportation facilities, whereas the net permanent assets measures the value of equipment installed at different times on a uniform price basis. The values of the permanent assets and capital investments are calculated by the DIW’s fixed assets account (see the publication: Verkehr in Zahlen, DIW=Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung). Traffic accidents The development of the various modes of transportation leads to an enormous increase of mobility in economy and private transport. The other side of an entire society’s mobility are the accidents with property damage, injured and killed. Goods are transported by road, rail, navigation or by aviation. The reliability of a fast transportation of good arriving safely their destination has influence on the economic development of a region or a country. Because of the accident frequency’s importance for economy and society in this compilation accidents are gathered by the modes of traffic rail, street, water and aviation, differentiated by nature of personal damage (killed and injured). Road traffic accidents, however, is given a focus in this data compilation due to the particular frequency compared to the other modes. Therefore, additionally the traffic accidents are listed here to the following points: listing by the road categories, on which the accidents have taken place (highway, country road, inside or outside of towns); listing by type of traffic participation of the parties involved in the accident and by accident cause (caused by the driver’s behavior, by road conditions, etc.). The Federal Statistical Office of Germany regularly publishes a special issue called Fachserie 8, No. 7, containing long rows of traffic accidents. On the basis of this publication, the data on the accidents frequency, injured and killed persons of accidents were gathered. Furthermore, the Statistical Yearbook of the Federal Republic of Germany, chapter ‘transport’, was used as data source. Especially for the operational accidents of railway the publication of Siegurt Klatt served as helpful source in addition: Siegurt Klatt: Die ökonomische Bedeutung der Qualität von Verkehrsleistungen. Berlin: Duncker&Humblot, S. 228 f. Traffic-indices in EU-comparison Selected variables such as the length of the rail and road network, inventory of vehicles, road traffic accidents and the transport capacity of the railway are represented as time series date in comparison with the countries of the European Union. The following countries are compared: Austria, Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, Denmark, Spain, France, Finland, Greece, Italy, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and the UK. The publication of Michell was used as data source for the period until 1985 (Mitchell: International Historical Statistics - Europe 1750-1988, 3rd ed. 1992). The publication ‘Verkehr in Zahlen’, published by the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing (Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau- und Wohnungswesen, BMVI) and processed by the German Institute for Economic Research in Berlin (Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, DIW) was referred to as source for the period after 1985. Due to different calculation methods there may be discrepancies between the data processed by the DIW and the data series of official statistics. Data tables in the online database histat (Topic: Verkehr) The time series data of this study covers the following focus on the following specific topics: • A. Bestände des Straßen-, Schienen- und Binnenschifffahrtsverkehrs (A. Stocks of road, rail, and inland waterway transportation) A.1.1 Bestand Kraftfahrzeuge (Stock of motor vehicles) - A.1.1.1 Bestand an Kraftfahrzeugen, Reichsgebiet (1907-1938) (Stock of motor vehicles, German Empire) - A.1.1.2 Bestand an Kraftfahrzeugen und Kraftfahrzeuganhänger nach Fahrzeugarten (1936-2000) (Stock of motor vehicles and their trailers) - A.1.1.3 Bestand an Kraftfahrzeugen nach Antriebsart (1963-2000) (Stock of motor vehicles by mode of driving) - A.1.1.4 Bestand an Personen-Kraftfahrzeugen nach Hubraumklasse (1950-2000) (Stock of motor vehicles by cubic capacity) A.1.2 Neu-Zulassungen Kraftfahrzeuge (New registrations of motor vehicles) - A.1.2.1 KFZ-Neu-Zulassungen nach Berufsgruppen (1950-1997) (New registrations by the owners occupation) - A.1.2.2 KFZ-Neu-Zulassungen der Personen-Kraftfahrzeuge nach Hubraum (1950-1997) (New registrations by cubic capacity) - A.1.2.3 KFZ-Neu-Zulassungen nach Antriebsart (1963-1999) (New registration by mode of driving) A.1.3 Straßennetz (road network) - A.1.3.1 Länge der öffentlichen Straßen nach Straßenart (1951-2000) (Length of public roads by road type) A.1.4. Bevölkerung nach Alter und Kraftfahrzeuge pro 1000 Einwohner (1960-2000) (Population by age and motor vehicles per 1000 of population) A.2 Eisenbahnen: Fahrzeugbestände und Streckenlängen (Railways: Vehicle stocks and rail lengths) - A.2.1 Eisenbahnen: Fahrzeugbestände und Streckenlängen, Reichsgebiet (1870-1937) (Railways: Vehicle stocks and rail lengths during the period of the German Empire) - A.2.1.2 Eisenbahnen: Regionale Entwicklung des Eisenbahnnetzes - Streckenlängen, Reichsgebiet (1839-1914) (Regional development of rail lengths, German Empire) - A.2.2 Eisenbahnen: Streckenlängen, Bahnhöfe, Anschlüsse und Fahrzeugbestände, Bundesgebiet (1950-2000) (Rail lengths, railway stations, rail connections, railroad crossings, stocks of wagons, railway cars and railway engines) A.3 Binnenschifffahrt: Schiffsbestände und Wasserstrassen (Inland Waterways: Ship Stocks and waterways) - A.3.1 Binnenschifffahrt: Länge schiffbarer Wasserstrassen (1872-2010) (Lengths of navigable inland waterways) - A.3.2 Binnenschiffe: Bestand, Tragfähigkeit und Altersstruktur nach Schiffstypen (1872, 1969-2010). (Stock, load capacity and age structure by ship types) • B. Transport- und Beförderungsleistungen nach Verkehrszweigen (Transport services by mode of traffic) B.1 Güterverkehr nach Verkehrswegen und Gütergruppen (1954-2000) (Freight traffic by traffic route and by categories of goods) - B.1 Güterverkehr nach Verkehrswegen und Gütergruppen (1954-2000) - B.1.1 Güterverkehr nach Verkehrszweigen, früheres Bundesgebiet, Deutschland (1954-2000) (Freight traffic by mode of traffic, former FRG and Germany) - B.1.2 Güterverkehr (Nah und Fern) im Straßenverkehr, früheres Bundesgebiet/Deutschland (1954-1997) (Freight traffic on the road (long and short distance traffic), former FRG and Germany) - B.1.2.1 Güterverkehr nach Gütergruppen im Straßenverkehr (Freight traffic on the road by categories of goods) - B.1.3 Güterfernverkehr im Eisenbahnverkehr (1950-1997) (Freight traffic on railways) - B.1.3.1 Güterverkehr nach Gütergruppen im Eisenbahnverkehr (Freight traffic on railways by categories of goods) - B.1.4 Güterverkehr in der Binnenschifffahrt: Geleistete Tonnenkilometer auf Wasserstrassen (1875-2010) (Freigth traffic on inland waterways: tonne-kilometre) - B.1.4.1 Güterverkehr nach Gütergruppen in der Binnenschifffahrt (Freight traffic by categories of goods on inland waterways) B.2 Personenverkehr (1952-2000) (Passenger transport) - B.2.1 Personenbeförderung nach Verkehrszweigen nach der amtlichen Statistik (1952-2000) (Passenger transport by mode of traffic,calculated by the official Statistics) - B.2.2 Personenbeförderung der Eisenbahnen nach Berechnungen des DIW (Passenger transport by railroad,calculated by the German Institute of Economic Research, DIW) - B.2.3 Personenbeförderung durch Straßenverkehrsunternehmen (1950-2000) (Passenger transport by road traffic transportation companies) • C. Ausgaben, Investitionen und Vermögen (expenditures, investments and assets) C.1.1 Ist-Ausgaben des Bundes für Verkehr in Mio. € (1950-2000) (Actual federal spending on Transport in million Euro) C.1.2 Ist-Ausgaben des Bundes für Verkehr in Mio. DM. (1950-2000) (Actual federal spending on Transport in million Deutsche Mark) C.2.1.1 Brutto-Anlageinvestitionen insgesamt zu den jeweiligen Preisen (1950-2000) (Gross fixed investment at current prices) C.2.1.2 Brutto-Anlageinvestitionen insgesamt zu den Preisen von 1995, in Mio.DM (1950-2000) (Gross fixed investment at prices of 1995, in Million Deutsche Mark) C.2.2.1 Brutto-Anlagevermögen in Preisen von 1995 (DM und EURO), 1950-2000 (Gross permanent assets in prices of 1995, Euro and Deutsche Mark) C.2.2.2 Netto-Anlagevermögen in Preisen von 1995 (DM und EURO), 1950-2000 (Net permanent assets in prices of 1995, Euro and Deutsche Mark) C.3 Erwerbstätige in 1000 nach Verkehrszweigen (1950-2000) (Employed in 1000 by mode of transport) • D. Verkehrsunfälle (traffic accidents) D.1.1 Verkehrsunfälle nach Verkehrszweigen (1960-2000) (traffic accidents by mode of transport) D.1.2 Verkehrsunfälle und Verunglückte in der Luftfahrt (1960-2006) (traffic accidents and the persons who has suffered the accident in aviation) D.1.3 Bahnbetriebsunfälle auf Vollspurbahnen der Deutschen Bundesbahn nach Unfallarten, früheres Bundesgebiet und Deutschland (1946-1962; 1985-2011) (Railway operations accidents on full gauge railways of the German Federal Railway and the German Railway AG in Germany) D.2.1.1 Straßenverkehrsunfälle insgesamt nach Verunglückten, Reichsgebiet (1906-1938) (Road traffic accidents in total and by persons who has suffered the accident, German Empire) D.2.1.2 Straßenverkehrsunfälle insgesamt nach Verunglückten (1946-2000) (Road traffic accidents in total and by Persons who has suffered the accident, Federal Republic of Germany and Germany after reunification) D.2.2 Straßenverkehrsunfälle nach Verunglückten und nach Straßenkategorien (1973-2000) (Road traffic accidents by Persons who has suffered the accident and by categories of streets) D.2.3 Unfälle mit Personenschaden je 10000 Kfz sowie je 1 Mill. Einwohner (Accidents involving personal injury per 10.000 motor vehicles and per 1 Million of Population) D.2.5 Unfälle nach Art der Verkehrsbeteiligung (1957-2000) (Accidents by mode of participation in the road traffic) D.2.6 Unfälle mit Personenschaden nach Unfallursachen, von Hundert (1960-2000) (Accidents involving personal injury by accident causes) D.2.4 Unfälle mit Personenschaden je 1 Mrd. Fahrzeugkilometer (Injury accidents per 1 billion vehicle kilometers) • E. Kennziffern in EU-Vergleich (Traffic-indices in EU-comparison) E.1 Länge der Verkehrswege für Schienenverkehr und Straßennetz (1930-2000 und 1985-2000) (Length of traffic ways: railway lines and roads) E.2 Bestand an Kraftfahrzeugen, insgesamt und pro 1000 Einwohner (1985-2000) (Stock of motor vehicles, totally and per 1.000 of population) E.3. Straßenverkehrsunfälle mit Personenschaden (1985-2000) (Road accidents in with injury to persons) E.4.1 Beförderte Personen durch die Eisenbahn (1985-2000) (Persons transported by the railway) E.4.2 Beförderte Güter durch die Eisenbahn (1985-2000) (Freight transported by the railway)
1950 / 2000
Former Federal Republic of Germany in the borders of 1945 and 1960 (inkl. Saarland and Berlin-West); Germany in the borders since 3rd October 1990 (reunification).
Sources: 1. Official Statistics: - Statistisches Bundesamt für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Jahrbücher für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland. - Statistisches Bundesamt (Hrsg.): Bevölkerung und Wirtschaft 1872-1972. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1972. - Statistisches Bundesamt (Hrsg.): Lange Reihen zur Wirtschaftsentwicklung; W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart und Mainz, verschiedene Jahrgänge. - Statistisches Bundesamt (Hrsg.): Verkehr. Eisenbahnverkehr, Fachserie 8/ Reihe 2, verschiedene Jahrgänge. - Statistisches Bundesamt (Hrsg.): Verkehr im Überblick, Fachserie 8/ Reihe 1.2, verschiedene Jahrgänge. - Statistisches Bundesamt (Hrsg.), Fachserie 8, Reihe 7: Verkehrsunfälle. Jg. 2006. Download als Excel-Datei: 1. Strassenverkehrsunfälle – Zeitreihen. Datenblätter: Zeitreihe 1.1_D; Z_ 1.1_Früheres_B.gebiet; Z_1.1_Neue_Länder; Zeitreihe 1.2.; Z_1.2_Innerhalb; Zeitreihe_1.3 u. 1.4 - Statistisches Bundesamt (Hrsg.), Fachserie 8, Reihe 7: Verkehrsunfälle. Jg. 2007, S. 303-204. - Bundesministerium für Verkehr (Hrsg.): Verkehr in Zahlen. Verschiedene Jahrgänge. Bearbeitet vom Deutschen Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW) 2. Association Statistics: - Verband der Automobilindustrie (Hrsg.): Tatsachen in Zahlen, verschiedene Jg. 3. Scientific Publications: - Klatt, Siegurt: Die ökonomische Bedeutung der Qualität von Verkehrsleistungen. Berlin: Duncker&Humblot - Mitchell, B.R. (2007): International Historical Statistics. Europe 1750-2005. Palgrave Macmillan.
Number of Variables:
- ZA8292 (Type: ZA-No.)
Franzmann, Gabriele (2014): Grunddaten zur Entwicklung des deutschen Verkehrssystems: Bestände, Leistungen, Unfälle nach Verkehrszweigen, Ausgaben und Investitionen sowie ausgewählte Kennziffern im EU-Vergleich, 1950 - 2000. GESIS-Datenkompilation. Koeln
Update Metadata: 2021-04-07 | Issue Number: 21 | Registration Date: 2014-11-19