Labour market policy in the German Empire.
- Faust, Anselm
- Historical Studies Data
AbstractApart from a few individual studies the labor market and it’s segregation, the relation between supply and demand, employment structure, and unemployment is until today not analyzed in its historical dimension. The same applies to the history of labor market policy. The present study’s aim is to fill this gap by describing the most important elements of the labor market policy: the employment service, the job creation, and the unemployment benefit. The researcher addresses one of the most important problems of the modern, on the intense division of labor based economy: the labor market coverage with highly skilled workers. The reason for the complexity of this task lies in the strong segmentation of the labor market (numerous sub-markets and sectors with different requirements on qualifications) and – since the industrialization – the fact, that the labor market is in a process of constant, sometimes short term changes. To manage this situation, market transparency to the largest possible extent is necessary, which is a central field of the employment service’s responsibility. To this basic function (the supply of the labor market with adequate skilled workers, called by Anselm Faust ‘market function’) further important functions are attached, for example the prevention of unemployment. The not commercially labor service was expanded in Germany to an inherent part of modern labor market policy in a period between 30 and 40 years. The labor service was in the end of the 19th century insignificant and both institutionally and in terms of a policy of interests fragmented. But in 1927 it was integrated by the law about labor service and unemployment insurance into a system of coordinated public institutions and public policies. The purpose of this new implemented law is to balance and to influence the labor market, the employment policy, and to ensure a basic social care of the unemployed. The goals of the labor market policy, developed in a long historical process til today, can be summarized as follows: - to influence quantity, composition and qualification of possible and actual labor force in direction to an optimal structure and development; - to induce the best possible adaption between available labor force and working places; - to use the labor force productively, fully and continuously to enable the individual and public increase in welfare or benefit; - to protect the economically active population from the consequences of unemployment. The preset study addresses the most important elements in historical view and in policy terms, i.e. the labor service, job creation, and unemployment compensation. The labor market is the place to meet demand and supply. Therefore, labor service is the organized market process and the contact point, where supply and demand for labor does coincide. The history of labor service, job creation, and unemployment compensation in Germany between 1890 and 1918 is analyzed in terms of: - its social and economical preconditions: the structure of the labor market, the development and social meaning of employment and unemployment; - the theoretical and ideological subsumption as well as the social interests derived from the social and economic conditions. - the function of labor market policy within the German ‘Kaiserreich’s’ (German Royal empire’s) conflicts of interests and the political importance of labor market policy, resulting from the conflicts of interests; - the strategies for solving the labor market conflicts, the actions and investments and their organizational arrangement; - the government’s part by solving conflicts and organizing the labor market; - the relevance of labor market instruments to organize labor market processes and to protect the unemployed. (see: Faust, A., 1986: Arbeitsmarktpolitik im Deutschen Kaiserreich. Arbeitsvermittlung, Arbeitsbeschaffung und Arbeitslosenunter¬stützung 1890-1918. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, S. 2f, S. 10). Datatables in the search- and downloadsystem HISTAT (Topic: Erwerbstätigkeit (=employment) ) Annotation: HISTAT is offered in German. A. Arbeitslosigkeit (=Unemployment) A.01 Arbeitsgesuche auf 100 offene Stellen (1907-1918) (number of applications to 100 vacancies) A.02 Die Arbeitslosenquote in den Gewerkschaften (1904-1918) (unemployment rate in lobor unions) A.03 Die Arbeitslosenquoten in den Gewerkschaftsverbänden (1904-1918) (unemployment rates in trade union associations) A.04 die geschlechtsspezifische Arbeitslosenquote in den Gewerkschaftsverbänden (1914-1918) (gender-specific unemployment rate in trade union associations) A.05 die Arbeitslosenquoten in den Angestelltenverbänden (1908-1918) (unemployment rate in clerical worker unions) B. Arbeitsnachweise (= employment agency; labor service) B.01a Die nichtgewerbsmäßigen Arbeitsnachweise, Anzahl (1904-1927) (Not commercial labor service, number) B.02b Der Vermittlungsanteil der öffentlichen Arbeitsnachweise (1913-1928) (share of agency of jobs of public labor service) B.02 Die Vermittlungsergebnisse der nichtgewerbsmäßigen Arbeitsnachweise (1913-1918) (results of job agency of public labor service) B.03 Die Gründungsjahre der Arbeitsnachweise (1865-1912) (founding years of labor service) B.04 Gründungsjahre der im Januar 1910 in Preußen bestehenden öffentlichen Arbeitsnachweise (1864-1909) (Founding years of the Prussian official labor service, which started in 1910) B.05 Tarifvertragliche Arbeitsnachweisvereinbarungen (1910-1914) (Labor services according to collective labour agreements) B.06 Die Vermittlung von Frauen (1910-1918) (Women labor agencies) B.07 Notstandsarbeiten (1891-1913) (jobs in the framework of desparate situations) C. Arbeitslosenunterstützung (unemployment compensation) C.01 Arbeitslosenunterstützung in den Einzelverbänden der Freien Gewerkschaften (1891-1914) (unemployment compensation of single of individual free labor unions‘ associations) C.02 Die Ausgaben der Freien Gewerkschaften für Reise- und Arbeitslosenunterstützung (1891-1918) (expenses of free labor unions on travel costs and unemployment compensation) C.03 Die Arbeitslosenunterstützung in den christlichen Gewerkschaften und den Gewerkvereinen (Hirsch-Duncker) (1904-1918) (unemployment compensation of christiann labor unions and of trade associations)
1904 / 1928
German Reich (1871-1945) (DXDE)
Sources: Publications of the official Statistics: Reichsarbeitsblatt; Statistisches Jahrbuch für das Deutsche Reich; Erhebung über Arbeitsnachweise 1912; Statistisches Jahrbuch deutscher Städte. Data of research literature.
Number of Units: 24
Number of Variables: 114
- ZA8423 (Type: ZA-No.)
Faust, Anselm, 1986: Arbeitsmarktpolitik im Deutschen Kaiserreich. Arbeitsvermittlung, Arbeitsbeschaffung und Arbeitslosenunterstützung 1890-1918. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.
Update Metadata: 2021-04-07 | Issue Number: 85 | Registration Date: 2011-03-14