Living in Hamburg before the first World War

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • Wischermann, Clemens
Publication Date
  • ZA:
    • Historical Studies Data
  • Abstract

    The present study is an exemplary analysis of the development and the changes of living in a big city of the 19th century. The study tries to develop indicators for the evaluation of the urban housing provision during the process of urbanization that relate occurrence and extent of housing shortage with quantifiable standards of housing provision looking at the example of Hamburg in the second part of the 19th century. Thereby a long term analysis of the material circumstances of housing conditions will be shown and at the same time the concept of housing shortage in its historical relativity through a comparison with the living conditions in the Federal Republic of Germany will be clarified. Based on this, in the second step standards and social disparities of housing in their social stratification and in its urban structure change will be examined. In how far the example of Hamburg in the late 19th century can be generalized will be reviewed through a comparison of housing types and housing provision levels of German cities using a cross-sectional comparison of 1905. “Based on a comparison of metropolitan living situations it will be attempted to show the level and extend of disparities in the housing provision in the late 19th century using a typology of metropolitan housing structures. We assume that the housing structure of a city can only be represented in a very imperfect way using a more or less arbitrary chosen random variable. Much more information can be derived from the correlation of many different characteristics of the basic structure of urban housing, that can be understood as quasi-independent variables and that build the basis of the comparison. For a hierarchical cluster analysis with 27 variables 30 cities were considered for statistical classification and an empirical typecast. The used data is based on statistical housing surveys of German cities that were made in the context of the population census from the first December of 1905 and on the information if the profession and establishment census from July 1907. Three fourth of the cities (with more than 100.000 inhabitants) of the German Empire were selected” (Wischermann, a. cit., p. 401). “The excellent public statistics from Hamburg were, especially in the turn of the century, adjusted with many private surveys. Therefor the state of the quantitative sources for Hamburg is probably the best one of the German Empire… The situation of the sources for the investigation of the development of the housing circumstances in the 19th century in Hamburg is better than in other parts of Germany. This data basis enabled this study going back until the beginning of the industrialization; it enabled the investigation of one of the most important German case studies of changes in urban housing in the 19th century in a city that was at the frontier of English, French and Berlin zones of influence on the development of living circumstances in Germany. It is also a paradigm for the investigation of structural changes of housing within a city under the impact of economic transitions (extension of the harbor), hygienic innovation (since the cholera epidemic) and several urban development projects. Especially in the German urbanization period quality and structure of housing in the developing cities are connected with the urban area and the socio-spatial differentiation of housing in an extent that has not been known so far.” (Wischermann, a. cit., p. 13, p. 15). Data tables in HISTAT: (In addition, the cross-sectional data for 1905 for cluster analysis of German cities (30 cities, 27 variables for the year 1905) can be ordered at the GESIS data archive number ZA8474). A. Tables from the appendix A.01 Development of the population in the inner city and the suburbs of Hamburg (1817-1866) A.02 Housing stock in the inner city and the suburbs of Hamburg (1817-1866) A.03 Present local population of Hamburg and the districts (1867-1910) A.04 Movement of the population in Hamburg (1864-1913) A.05 The population density of Hamburg’s districts (1871-1910) A.06 Housing stock density of Hamburg’s districts(1867-1910) A.07 The provision level of housing in Hamburg (1867-1912) A.08 Internal density of Hamburg and its districts A: residents per room without kitchens (1885-1910) A.09 Internal density of Hamburg and its districts B: inhabitants per heated room (1885-1910) A.10 Occupancy of Hamburg and its districts: residents per apartment (1867-1910) A.11 Empty rooms and their rental value in Hamburg (1866-1913) A.12 Empty rooms in Hamburg and its districts (1867-1910) A.13 New construction, alteration and demolition statistics of the city of Hamburg (1885-1912) A.14 Small housing production in Hamburg (1896-1912) A.15 Landowner relations in Hamburg (1875-1910) A.16 Development of floor living in Hamburg (1867-1910) A.17 Residents after number of floors on Hamburg (1867-1910) A.18 Basement apartments in the districts of Hamburg (1867-1910) A.19 Apartments in the back building in Hamburg (1875-1910) A.20 Dissemination and development of high-rise apartments in Hamburg and its districts (1867-1910) A.21 Decline in single family living in Hamburg and its districts (1867-1910) A.22 Usage of rooms in Hamburg (1867-1910) A.23 Nonresidential rooms in Hamburg and its districts (1867-1910) A.24 Nonresidential use of apartments in Hamburg and its districts (1867-1910) A.25 Extent of the upper population in the districts of Hamburg (1867-1910) A.26 Average number of rooms in the apartment’s population in the districts of Hamburg (1885-1910) A.27 Equipment of the apartment with kitchen and heated rooms in Hamburg (1885-1910) A.28 Equipment of the apartment with bathroom in population in the districts of Hamburg (1885-1910) A.29 Development of rental prices on residential and non-residential apartments in Hamburg (1867-1913) A.30 Household communities according to their composition in Hamburg (1867-1910) A.31 Proportion of pure family households in the districts of Hamburg (1867-1910) A.32 Subtenant, sleep goers, servants and commercial agents in Hamburg (1867-1910) A.33 Proportion of households with lodgers and / or sleep-goers in the districts of Hamburg (1867-1910) A.34 Proportion of households with servants in the districts of Hamburg (1867-1910) A.35 Proportion of households with commercial assistance in the districts of Hamburg (1867-1910) A.36 Relocation and migration volume in Hamburg (1893-1912) A.37 Duration of usage of the apartments in Hamburg (1885-1910) A.38 Apartments with duration of usage up to one year in in the districts of Hamburg (1885-1910) A.39 Place of birth the inhabitants of Hamburg and its districts (1871-1905) A.40 Proportion of children under 15 years in the population of Hamburg´s districts (1880-1910) A.41a Employment by sex in the Hamburg city districts (1900-1910) A.41b Employment by professional status in the Hamburg city districts (1900-1910) A.42 Taxed income per capita of the population in the districts of Hamburg (1881-1910) B. Tables from the text part B.01 Composition of Hamburg´s population growth Z (1871-1910) B.02 Employees in the state of Hamburg by economic sectors (1882-1907) B.03 Living in the rear house in Hamburg (1867-1912) B.04 Living in property and for rent in Hamburg (1895-1910) B.05 Relation of income and rent in Hamburg by income classes (1868-1901) B.06 Relation of income and rent in Hamburg by income classes (1868-1901) B.07 Apartment equipped with bathroom by apartment size in Hamburg (1890-1910) B.08 Place of birth of the population of Hamburg (1871-1905)
Temporal Coverage
  • 1867 / 1910
Geographic Coverage
  • Hamburg (DE-HH)
    The German city Hamburg during the period of 1867 and 1910
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Housing Unit
    Number of Units: 43
    Number of Variables: 927
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA8474 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • Wischermann, Clemens, 1983: Wohnen in Hamburg vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg. Münster: F. Coppenrath Verlag

Update Metadata: 2021-04-07 | Issue Number: 89 | Registration Date: 2011-03-29