Eurobarometer 91.4 (2019)

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • European Commission, Brussels
Other Title
  • Europeans’ attitudes on Trade and EU trade policy, Europeans’ attitudes on EU energy policy, and Discrimination in the European Union (Subtitle)
Publication Date
  • European Commission, Brussels; Directorate General Communication, COMM.A.3 ‘Media Monitoring and Eurobarometer’ (Researcher)
  • Kantar Belgium (Kantar TNS), Brussels, Belgium (Data Collector)
  • Kantar TNS BBSS, Sofia, Bulgaria (Data Collector)
  • Kantar CZ, Prague, Czech Republic (Data Collector)
  • Kantar GALLUP, Copenhagen, Denmark (Data Collector)
  • Kantar Deutschland, Munich, Germany (Data Collector)
  • Kantar Emor, Tallinn, Estonia (Data Collector)
  • Behaviour & Attitudes, Dublin, Ireland (Data Collector)
  • Taylor Nelson Sofres Market Research, Athens, Greece (Data Collector)
  • TNS Investigación de Mercados y Opinión, Madrid, Spain (Data Collector)
  • Kantar Public France, Montrouge, France (Data Collector)
  • Kantar Italia, Milan, Italy (Data Collector)
  • CYMAR Market Research, Nicosia, Cyprus (Data Collector)
  • Kantar TNS Latvia, Riga, Latvia (Data Collector)
  • TNS LT, Vilnius, Lithuania (Data Collector)
  • ILReS, Luxembourg, Luxembourg (Data Collector)
  • Kantar Hoffmann, Budapest, Hungary (Data Collector)
  • MISCO International, Valletta, Malta (Data Collector)
  • TNS NIPO, Amsterdam, Netherlands (Data Collector)
  • Info Research Austria Institut für Markt-und Meinungsforschung, Vienna, Austria (Data Collector)
  • Kantar Polska, Warsaw, Poland (Data Collector)
  • Marktest – Marketing, Organização e Formação, Lisbon, Portugal (Data Collector)
  • Centrul Pentru Studierea Opiniei si Pietei (CSOP), Bucharest, Romania (Data Collector)
  • Institute for market and media research, Mediana DOO, Ljubljana, Slovenia (Data Collector)
  • Kantar Slovakia, Bratislava, Slovakia (Data Collector)
  • Kantar TNS Oy, Espoo, Finland (Data Collector)
  • Kantar Sifo, Stockholm and Gothenburg, Sweden (Data Collector)
  • The Kantar Group UK, London, United Kingdom (Data Collector)
  • HENDAL, Zagreb, Croatia (Data Collector)
  • Kantar Public, Brussels (international co-ordination) (Data Collector)
  • ZA:
    • Economic Policy, National Economic Situation
    • Society, Culture
    • Group
    • Technology, Energy
  • CESSDA Topic Classification:
    • Economic conditions and indicators
    • Economic policy
    • Economic systems and development
    • Natural resources and energy
    • Social stratification and groupings
    • Minorities
    • Social exclusion
  • Abstract

    Since the early 1970s the European Commission´s Standard & Special Eurobarometer are regularly monitoring the public opinion in the European Union member countries. Principal investigators are the Directorate-General Communication and on occasion other departments of the European Commission or the European Parliament. Over time, candidate and accession countries were included in the Standard Eurobarometer Series. Selected questions or modules may not have been surveyed in each sample. Please consult the basic questionnaire for more information on country filter instructions or other questionnaire routing filters. In this study the following modules are included: 1. Europeans’ attitudes on trade and EU trade policy, 2. Europeans’ attitudes on EU energy policy, 3. Discrimination in the European Union. Topics: 1. Europeans’ attitudes on trade and EU trade policy: self-assessment of whether one benefits from global trade; reasons for this attitude; main priorities of European Union’s trade policy; preferred statements on globalisation: lifts people in developing countries out of poverty, brings new opportunities for national businesses, has always been happening, threatens jobs and way of living, changes world too quickly, results in a wider choice of goods and lower prices, creates jobs in the own country, too difficult for governments to control, has advantages and disadvantages; most important impact on jobs in the own country in the coming years: growing automation, tougher competition caused by international free trade, higher tariffs due to protectionist policies, immigration, aging population, climate change; effectiveness of defending the trade interests of the member states on EU level or on national level; attitude towards the application of higher import duties on goods and services from non-European countries and businesses; EU trade policy takes into account social, environmental and human rights impact both in the EU as well as with regard to trade partners; attitude towards selected statements on the cheaper sale of products made in countries with weaker workers’ rights and environmental standards: depends on consumers’ decision, European businesses with factories in developing countries should treat their workers fairly and respect the environment, EU should encourage other countries to improve their workers’ rights and environmental standards, EU should take measures against businesses from outside the EU that benefit from weaker workers’ rights and environmental standards; preferred statement on international trade rules: not necessary, necessary but not every country will follow them, necessary to create equal conditions; preferred statement on EU trade agreements: help create jobs and reduce prices for consumer and businesses, strengthen EU’s position in the world, make no difference, benefit businesses more than consumers or workers, limit national government in creating laws that contradict these agreements; online purchase of goods and services in the last twelve months from sellers located outside the EU; online purchase of goods and services from the following countries: United States, China, Japan, other countries; attitude towards the following statements on company investments in other countries: investments of businesses from outside the EU in own country, buying of businesses in the own country by businesses from outside the EU, national businesses investing in countries outside the EU, national businesses buying businesses in countries outside the EU; trust in the EU with regard to conducting its trade policy in an open and transparent manner; preferred sources of information on globalisation and international trade. 2. Europeans’ attitudes on EU energy policy: most important issues in the EU energy policy; attitude towards the following statements: EU must secure access to energy to all EU citizens, EU must ensure access to clean energy, EU must ensure access to affordable energy, strengthening of cooperation between EU member states in order to give all Europeans access to secure and affordable energy; attitude towards selected statements on how to ensure access to secure energy: reinforce cooperation between EU member states in the event of energy crises, diversify external energy suppliers, speak with one voice when negotiating with external energy suppliers, have a well-connected energy network across the EU, more cooperation on cybersecurity in the field of energy between EU member states, ensure safe and secure nuclear energy, monitor foreign investments in strategic energy infrastructure in the EU; attitude towards the following issues being responsibilities of the EU: support measures to increase energy performance of buildings, encourage investment in renewable energy, encourage investment in energy research and innovation, empower cities and local communities to move towards clean energy, support non-EU countries in moving towards cleaner energy systems; attitude towards the following issues being responsibilities of the EU: ensure that increased competition in EU energy markets leads to more affordable consumer prices, address energy poverty in all regions, facilitate consumers’ choice of energy sources and suppliers, empower consumers to produce and consume their own energy; awareness of the EU energy label; awareness of the responsibility of the label; impact of the EU energy label on purchase of electric appliances; most important energy issues to be prioritized by the EU over the next 10 years. 3. Discrimination in the European Union: friendship or acquaintance with: people of different ethnic origin, people of different skin colour, Roma, homo- or bisexuals, disabled persons, persons with different religious affiliation, transgender persons, intersex persons; own belonging to a minority; personal religious affiliation; assessment of the extent of discrimination in the own country with regard to: ethnic origin, skin colour, being Roma, sexual orientation, being perceived as too old or too young, religion, disability, being transgender, gender, being intersex; own experience of discrimination in the last twelve months according to the above characteristics; situation of most recent discrimination: when looking for a job, at work, when looking for a house or apartment to rent or buy, by healthcare personnel, by social service personnel, by school or university personnel, at cafés etc., in a shop or bank, in a public space, other; adversely affecting characteristics of an applicant in a concurrent application situation: name, address, way of speaking, ethnic origin, skin colour, being Roma, gender, sexual orientation, being intersex, age, disability, religious belief, look, physical appearance; frequency of the following activities in the last twelve months: shared content on online social networks about incidents of discriminatory treatment, publicly defended someone who was victim of discrimination, joined an association or campaign that defends people against discrimination, publicly raised the issue of discrimination at the workplace; acceptance of a person in the highest political position with the following characteristics (scale): woman, homo- or bisexual, different ethnic origin than the majority of the population, different skin colour than the majority of the population, Roma, perceived as young, perceived as old, disabled, different religious belief, transgender, intersex; sufficient efforts of the own country to fight discrimination (scale); perceived effectiveness of measures for the integration of the Roma population (scale); sufficient efforts at own workplace to promote diversity with regard to the following criteria: ethnic origin, skin colour, Roma origin, gender, sexual orientation, older aged people, younger aged people, religion, disability, transgender, intersex; authority to whom a self-experienced discrimination would be reported firstly: trade unions, NGOs or associations, courts, national equal opportunities organisation or ombudsman, lawyer, police, friend or family member, dispute resolution system, other; willingness to provide the following personal information on an anonymous basis as part of a census or statistical survey in order to fight discrimination: ethnic origin, skin colour, disability, religion, health, sexual orientation; attitude towards having a colleague belonging to one of the following groups of persons: Roma, black, Asian, white, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, Christian, atheist, homo- or bisexual, transgender, intersex, disabled, young person, old person; attitude towards the own child having a love relationship with a person belonging to one of the aforementioned groups; assumed attitude of the citizens about their children having Roma schoolmates (scale); attitude towards the following statements: same rights for homo- or bisexual people as for heterosexual ones, there is nothing wrong in sexual relationships between persons of the same sex, same sex marriages should be allowed throughout Europe; society could benefit from a better integration of the Roma; attitude towards the inclusion of the following topics in school education: religion, ethnic origin or skin colour, sexual orientation, transgender, intersex, disabililty, Roma culture and history; discomfort with regard to affection shown in public by the following kinds of couples: heterosexual, gay, lesbian; attitude towards the possibility for transgender persons to change their civil documents in order to match their inner gender identity; attitude towards a third option in official documents. Demography: age; nationality; life satisfaction; frequency of discussions about political matters on national, European, and local level; left-right self-placement; marital status; sex; age at end of education; occupation; professional position; type of community; household composition and household size; own a mobile phone and fixed (landline) phone; financial difficulties during the last year; internet use (at home, at work, at school); self-reported belonging to the working class, the middle class or the upper class of society; own voice counts in the own country and in the EU; opinion leadership. Additionally coded was: respondent ID; country; date of interview; time of the beginning of the interview; duration of the interview; number of persons present during the interview; respondent cooperation; size of locality; region; language of the interview; nation group; weighting factor.
Temporal Coverage
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-25
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-20
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-21
  • 2019-05-10 / 2019-05-20
    Czech Republic
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-23
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-23
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-20
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-20
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-20
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-20
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-20
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-20
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-18
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-19
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-20
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-20
  • 2019-05-10 / 2019-05-21
  • 2019-05-10 / 2019-05-20
  • 2019-05-10 / 2019-05-25
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-20
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-19
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-20
  • 2019-05-10 / 2019-05-20
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-20
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-20
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-23
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-22
  • 2019-05-09 / 2019-05-20
    United Kingdom
Geographic Coverage
  • Austria (AT)
  • Belgium (BE)
  • Bulgaria (BG)
  • Cyprus (CY)
  • Czech Republic (CZ)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Estonia (EE)
  • Spain (ES)
  • Finland (FI)
  • France (FR)
  • United Kingdom (GB-UKM)
  • Greece (GR)
  • Croatia (HR)
  • Hungary (HU)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Lithuania (LT)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Latvia (LV)
  • Malta (MT)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Poland (PL)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Romania (RO)
  • Sweden (SE)
  • Slovenia (SI)
  • Slovakia (SK)
Sampled Universe
Population of the respective nationalities of the European Union Member States and other EU nationals, resident in any of the 28 Member States and aged 15 years and over.
Probability: Stratified; Sampling Procedure Comment: Probability Sample: Multistage Sample
Collection Mode
  • Face-to-face interview
  • Face-to-face interview Face-to-face interview: CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interview)
Data and File Information
  • Number of Variables: 609
Question module QA ‘Europeans’ attitudes on Trade and EU trade policy’ partly replicates questions formerly asked in the framework of Eurobarometer 74.1 (ZA5237). Question module QB ‘Europeans’ attitudes on EU energy policy’ was newly introduced. Question module QC ‘Discrimination in the European Union’ partly replicates questions formerly asked in the framework of Eurobarometer 83.4 (ZA6595) and Eurobarometer 77.4 (ZA5613). No data are available for protocol items p8 (postal code), p9 (sample point number), p10 (interviewer number) and p11.
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA7575 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • Internationale Umfrageprogramme (Type: FDZ)
  • European Commission: Special Eurobarometer 491. Europeans´ attitudes on Trade and EU trade policy. Conducted by Kantar Public at the request of Directorate-General for Trade. Survey co-ordinated by the Directorate-General for Communication (DG COMM ‘Media monitoring and Eurobarometer’ Unit). Brussels, November 2019.
  • European Commission: Special Eurobarometer 492. Europeans´ attitudes on EU energy policy. Conducted by Kantar Public at the request of Directorate-General for Energy. Survey co-ordinated by the Directorate-General for Communication (DG COMM ‘Media monitoring and Eurobarometer’ Unit). Brussels, September 2019.
  • European Commission: Special Eurobarometer 493. Discrimination in the European Union. Conducted by Kantar Public at the request of Directorate-General for Justice and Consumers. Survey co-ordinated by the Directorate-General for Communication (DG COMM ‘Media monitoring and Eurobarometer’ Unit). Brussels, October 2019.

Update Metadata: 2021-04-07 | Issue Number: 15 | Registration Date: 2020-05-13